nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2015‒04‒19
nine papers chosen by
Sam Sarpong
The University of Mines and Technology

  1. Estimating nutrition-income elasticities in sub-Saharan African:Implication on health By Ogundari, Kolawole; Ito, Shoichi; Okoruwa, Victor
  2. The Sources of Business Cycles in a Low Income Country By Romain Houssa; Jolan Mohimont; Christopher Otrok
  3. Coming of age, seeking legitimacy: The historical trajectory of African management research By Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
  4. Harnessing Resource Wealth for Inclusive Growth in Fragile States By Corinne Delechat; Will Clark; Pranav Gupta; Malangu Kabedi-Mbuyi; Mesmin Koulet-Vickot; Carla Macario; Toomas Orav; Manuel Rosales; Rene Tapsoba; Dmitry Zhdankin; Susan Yang
  5. South Africa: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Reforms in the OTC Derivatives Market-Technical Note By International Monetary Fund
  6. Fiscal space for health in Sub-Saharan African countries: an efficiency approach By Novignon, Jacob; Nonvignon, Justice
  7. Can Economic Incentives Tame Jihad? Lessons from Sudan and Chad By Azam, Jean-Paul
  8. Mapping and deterring violent extremist networks in North-West Africa By Olivier Walther; Christian Leuprecht
  9. The Impact of Financial Education for Youth in Ghana By Dean Karlan; James Berry; Menno Pradhan

  1. By: Ogundari, Kolawole; Ito, Shoichi; Okoruwa, Victor
    Abstract: The study estimates calories, proteins and fats-income elasticities in sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Annual time series data for 43 countries covering 1975-2009 that yields a balanced panel was employed for the analysis. The nutrient-income elasticities are estimated based on the aggregate Engel Curve framework using Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS) technique that is robust to autocorrelation and non-parametric plot. The empirical results show that a 10% increase in income will lead to about a 0.90%, 0.87%, and 0.73% rise in fats, proteins and calories supply, respectively in the region. This shows that the estimated nutrient-income elasticities are of small size. Other results show that the relationship between calorie and protein-income was found to be non-linear at higher income and diminished, as revealed by the estimated aggregate Engel Curve and non-parametric plot.
    Keywords: Nutrition, health, income elasticity, cross-country, and SSA
    JEL: E0 E00 I1 I10
    Date: 2014–07–16
  2. By: Romain Houssa; Jolan Mohimont; Christopher Otrok
    Abstract: We examine the role of global and domestic shocks in driving macroeconomic fluctuations for Ghana. We are able to study the impact of exogenous shocks including productivity, credit supply, and commodity price shocks. We identify the shocks with a combination of sign and recursive restrictions within Bayesian VAR models. As a benchmark we provide results for South Africa to document the difference between two economies with similar structures but different levels of development. We find that global shocks play a more dominant role in South Africa than in Ghana. These shocks operate through three channels: trade, credit and commodity prices.
    Keywords: Business cycles;Ghana;South Africa;External shocks;Commodity price shocks;Regional shocks;Low-income developing countries;Cross country analysis;Vector autoregression;Econometric models;Credit Shocks, Developing Countries, Macroeconomic Stabilization Policies, Sign Restrictions, Bayesian VAR.
    Date: 2015–02–25
  3. By: Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical trajectory of African management research and managerial thinking. Design/methodology/approach – This paper draws from a review and synthesis of the literature from 1960–2012. Findings – The analysis led to the identification of three distinct phases which reflect the difficult and uncertain beginning to a promising future. Our historical pathway model also allows us to account for the evolution of management philosophies and thoughts, and current state of knowledge. Originality/value – Although there is a burgeoning stream of African management research, lack of comprehensive review and synthesis have obscured the enormous strides made. We advance a “novel” approach towards theory application and theory creation building on the “convergence hypothesis” and “divergence hypothesis”. Our analysis yielded a number of promising avenues for future research.
    Keywords: African management research; Africa; business;
    JEL: L0 L1 M0 M1 M2 M3
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Corinne Delechat; Will Clark; Pranav Gupta; Malangu Kabedi-Mbuyi; Mesmin Koulet-Vickot; Carla Macario; Toomas Orav; Manuel Rosales; Rene Tapsoba; Dmitry Zhdankin; Susan Yang
    Abstract: Like other fragile sub-Saharan African countries, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are seeking to harness their natural resource potential in the context of ambitious development strategies. This study investigates options for scaling up public investment and expanding social safety nets in a general equilibrium setting. First, it assesses the macro-fiscal implications of alternative fiscal rules for public investment, and, second, it explicitly accounts for redistribution through direct cash transfers. Results show that a sustainable non-resource deficit target is robust to the high uncertainty of resources output and prices, while delivering growth benefits through higher public investment. The scaling-up magnitudes, however, depend on the size of projected resource revenue and absorptive capacity. Adding a social transfer raises private consumption, suggesting that a fraction of the resource revenue could be used to expand safety nets.
    Keywords: Natural resources;Guinea;Liberia;Sierra Leone;Inclusive growth;Social safety nets;Public investment;Fiscal policy;General equilibrium models;Natural resources, West Africa, fragile states, social safety nets, inclusive growth
    Date: 2015–02–11
  5. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Technical Note analyzes over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market reforms in South Africa and identifies vulnerabilities that may potentially impact financial stability. South Africa is committed to reform its OTC derivatives market to reduce vulnerabilities and increase transparency. Reforms are being implemented through the Financial Market Act and Regulations for banks, reflecting the Basel III capital requirements. Swift progress on the consultation and issuance of FMA regulations, trade repository regulations, and related notices are warranted to proceed with reforming the OTC derivatives market. Secondary legislation still needs to be finalized and will contain requirements for financial market infrastructures.
    Keywords: Financial Sector Assessment Program;Securities markets;Securities regulations;Capital markets;Payment systems;South Africa;
    Date: 2015–03–03
  6. By: Novignon, Jacob; Nonvignon, Justice
    Abstract: The study argues that potential savings from efficiency could be effective alternative to increasing health system financing in SSA. Health system efficiency estimates were derived from the Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis and used to compute potential gains from efficiency. Data was sourced from the World Bank's world development indicators for 45 SSA countries in 2011. The results reveal that average potential saving in health expenditure from improved efficiency was 0.10% and 0.75% of GDP per capita in the DEA and SFA models, respectively. The results also showed that a 1% increase in efficiency of health expenditure reduced infant mortality rate by 0.91% compared to 0.40% reduction in infant mortality if health expenditure increased by 1%. The results imply that in the face of significant economic challenges and burden on government budget, improving health expenditure efficiency to create some fiscal space will be an important step.
    Keywords: Fiscal space for health, health expenditure, DEA, SFA
    JEL: H5 H51 I1
    Date: 2015–02–02
  7. By: Azam, Jean-Paul
    Abstract: This paper uses a provocation model to explain why the initial Muslim coalitions against southern Christians broke up in Sudan and Chad. The need to cooperate was made obvious in Sudan when oil flew in a Chinese-built pipeline running through the Christian rebels’ homeland. Jihad was called off and political Islam was discarded when the rebels showed their ability to disrupt the oil flow by blowing up the pipeline. The government of Sudan had switched from African socialism to Political Islam a couple of decades before. It then imposed the Sharia Law even on the Christians as a provocation to trigger a rebellion after years of peace and to launch an ethnic cleansing campaign in the oil-rich areas. In Chad also, the initial Muslim coalition against the Christians broke up for sharing the oil money with the latter, but with a different timing.
    Date: 2015–03
  8. By: Olivier Walther (Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark); Christian Leuprecht (Queen's University)
    Abstract: This article examines the structural and spatial organization of violent extremist organizations (VEOs) across the Sahara. Building on the Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset (ACLED), a public collection of political violence data for developing states, the article investigates structural connections of VEOs and the effect of borders on the spatial patterns of armed groups. Social network analysis reveals that the network involving VEOs had a low density, a low level of transitivity, and contained few central actors, three typical characteristics of negative-tie networks. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is unquestionably the most connected VEO, which in purely network terms can be seen as a liability. Spatial analysis shows that, while violence was almost exclusively concentrated within Algeria between 1997 and 2004, cross-border movements intensified in the mid-2000s following the establishment of military bases by AQIM in Mali. As of late, VEOs have primarily concentrated their operations in Northern Mali as well as Southern Algeria, whereas Mauritania, Niger and Chad have been relatively unaffected. It follows that deterrence and containment strategies should be devised for regions rather than states. The findings have significant implications for multinational security and stability operations and the need to coordinate transnationally.
    Keywords: violent extremist organizations, social networks, terrorism, borders, Sahel, Sahara, Africa
    JEL: N40 N47 D74
    Date: 2015–04
  9. By: Dean Karlan (Economic Growth Center, Yale University); James Berry (Cornell University); Menno Pradhan (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We evaluate, using a randomized trial, two school-based financial literacy education programs in government-run primary and junior high schools in Ghana. One program integrated financial and social education, whereas the second program only offered financial education. Both programs included a voluntary after-school savings club that provided students with a locked money box. After nine months, both programs had significant impacts on savings behavior relative to the control group, mostly because children moved savings from home to school. We observed few other impacts. We do find that financial education, when not accompanied by social education, led children to work more compared to the control group, whereas no such effect is found for the integrated curriculum; however, the difference between the two treatment effects on child labor is not statistically significant.
    Keywords: financial literacy, youth finance, savings
    JEL: D14 J22 J24 O12
    Date: 2015–04

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