nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2014‒05‒04
forty-nine papers chosen by
Christian Zimmermann
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

  1. Continental Visions: Ann Seidman, Reginald H. Green, and the Economics of African Unity in 1960s Ghana By Gerardo Serra
  2. Forecasting South African Inflation Using Non-Linear Models: A Weighted Loss-Based Evaluation By Pejman Bahramian; Mehmet Balcilar; Rangan Gupta; Patrick T. kanda
  3. Income Shocks and HIV in Africa By Burke, Marshall; Gong, Erick; Jones, Kelly M.
  4. Unravelling public authority : paths of hybrid governance in Africa By Meagher, Kate; De Herdt, Tom; Titeca, Kristof
  5. Neopatrimonialism and agricultural protection: The case of maize in Malawi: By Phiri, Horace; Edris, Abdi Khalil
  6. Patterns of adoption of improved maize technologies in Ghana: By Ragasa, Catherine; Dankyi, Awere; Acheampong, Patricia; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Chapoto, Antony; Asamoah, Marian; Tripp, Robert
  7. Can Dreams Come True? Eliminating Extreme Poverty in Africa by 2030 By Ncube, Mthuli; Brixiova, Zuzana; Bicaba, Zorobabel
  8. The Out of Africa Hypothesis of Comparative Development Reflected by Nighttime Light Intensity By Ashraf, Quamrul; Galor, Oded; Klemp, Marc
  9. Development of a participatory action research approach for four agricultural carbon projects in east Africa: By Shames, Seth; Bernier, Quinn; Masiga, Moses
  10. Can Information Reduce Nonpayment for Public Utilities? Experimental Evidence from South Africa By Andrea Szabo; Gergely Ujhelyi
  11. Informal Interference in the Judiciary in New Democracies: A Comparison of Six African and Latin American Cases By Mariana Llanos; Cordula Tibi Weber; Charlotte Heyl; Alexander Stroh
  12. Analysis of employment, real wage, and productivity trends in South Africa since 1994 By Wittenberg, Martin
  13. Urban food retail in Africa: The case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia By Woldu, Thomas; Abebe, Girum; Lamoot, Indra; Minten, Bart
  14. Links between tenure security and food security: Evidence from Ethiopia: By Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein
  15. Patterns of adoption of improved rice technologies in Ghana: By Ragasa, Catherine; Dankyi, Awere; Acheampong, Patricia; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Chapoto, Antony; Asamoah, Marian; Tripp, Robert
  16. Scaling-up adoption of improved technologies: The impact of the promotion of row planting on farmers’ teff yields in Ethiopia: By Vandercasteelen, Joachim; Dereje, Mekdim; Minten, Bart; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
  17. Women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia: By Woldu, Thomas; Tadesse, Fanaye; Waller, Marie-Katherine
  18. The measurement of earnings in the post-Apartheid period: An overview By Wittenberg, Martin; Pirouz, Farah
  19. Maize Price Differences and Evidence of Spatial Integration in Malawi: The case of selected markets: By Nyongo, Lovemore
  20. Evaluation of grassroots community–based legal aid activities in Uganda and Tanzania: Strengthening women’s legal knowledge and land rights: By Peterman, Amber; Billings, Lucy; Behrman, Julia A.
  21. Chinese direct investment in Africa. A state strategy? By Thierry Pairault
  22. Using evidence in unraveling food supply chains in Ethiopia: The supply chain of teff from major production areas to Addis Ababa: By Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
  23. The last mile(s) in modern input distribution: Evidence from Northwestern Ethiopia By Minten, Bart; Koro, Bethlehem; Stifel, David
  24. Political economy of agricultural producer support in Malawi: An econometric test of determinants of producer protection in the maize sector: By Phiri, Horace; Edriss, Abdi Khalil
  25. Spatial integration of cereal markets in Ethiopia: By Tamru, Seneshaw
  26. Welfare Effects of Vegetable Commercialization: Evidence from Smallholder Producers in Kenya By Muriithi, Beatrice; Matz, Julia
  27. Ethiopia’s value chains on the move: The case of teff: By Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
  28. What do people actually learn from public health education campaigns? Incorrect inferences about male circumcision and female HIV infection risk in a cluster randomized trial in Malawi By Brendan Maughan-Brown; Susan Godlonton; Rebecca L. Thornton; Atheendar S Venkataramani
  29. Agricultural mechanization in Ghana: Is specialization in agricultural mechanization a viable business model? By Houssou, Nazaire; Diao, Xinshen; Cossar, Frances; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Jimah, Kipo; Aboagye, Patrick Ohene
  30. Land constraints and agricultural intensification in Ethiopia: A village-level analysis of high-potential areas: By Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Josephson, Anna; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
  31. The Analysis of Impact of Investment in Education on Economic Growth in Nigeria: Veracity of Association of Staff Union of University of Nigeria’s agitation By Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
  32. The cost of adapting to climate change in Ethiopia: Sector-wise and macro-economic estimates: By Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Cervigni, Raffaello
  33. Aflatoxin control strategies in the groundnut value chain in Ghana: By Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Kolavalli, Shashidhara
  34. Household decision-making and gender relations in Tanzania : Literature and theory review By Van Aelst, Katrien
  35. Ghana's commercial seed sector: New incentives or continued complacency?: By Tripp, Robert; Mensah-Bonsu, Akwesi
  36. Determinants and impact of sustainable land and watershed management investments: A systems evaluation in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: By Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
  37. Why did Mozambique’s public extension halt the implementation of the National Agrarian Extension Program (PRONEA)?: By Gêmo, Hélder; Chilonda, Pius
  38. The gendered impacts of agricultural asset transfer projects: Lessons from the Manica Smallholder Dairy Development Program: By Johnson, Nancy; Njuki, Jemimah; Waithanji, Elizabeth; Nhambeto, Marinho; Rogers, Martha; Kruger, Elizabeth Hutchinson
  39. Gender Comparison, Schooling and Sociability Ratings in Nigeria Evidence from Youth Survey in Ife Town By Ojeaga, Paul; Odejimi, Deborah
  40. Decentralizing agricultural public expenditures: Findings from a scoping study at the onset of a new stage in Ghana’s decentralization reform: By Mogues, Tewodaj; Omusu-Baah, Kwaku
  41. Role of Agriculture in Economic Growth & Development: Nigeria Perspective By Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
  42. Impact of Energy Consumption and Environmental Degradation on Economic Growth in Nigeria By Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
  43. Does internal migration improve overall well-being in Ethiopia?: By de Brauw, Alan; Mueller, Valerie; Woldehanna, Tassew
  44. Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia: By Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim
  45. Structural change in the economy of Nigeria: By Adeyinka, Adedeji; Salau, Sheu; Vollrath, Dietrich
  46. Assessing Regional Variations in the Effect of the Removal of User Fees on Institutional Deliveries in Rural Zambia By Chitalu M. Chama-Chiliba; Steven F. Koch
  47. Informal Sector and Employment Generation in Nigeria By Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
  48. The farm-level economics of conservation agriculture for resource-poor farmers By Pannell, David J; Llewellyn, Rick S; Corbeels, Marc
  49. Efficiency and productivity differential effects of land certification program in Ethiopia: Quasi-experimental evidence from Tigray: By Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein

  1. By: Gerardo Serra
    Abstract: The paper presents the history of the contribution of two American economists to a radical cause: the establishment of a socialist and politically united Africa. The setting is 1960s Ghana which under Kwame Nkrumah, the man who led the country to independence from British colonial rule, emerged as the epicentre of this Pan-African vision. Ann Seidman and Reginald H. Green became, as members of the research team on ‘The Economics of African Unity’ established at the University of Ghana in 1963, the most sophisticated and systematic advocates of Nkrumah’s economic argument for continental planning and political union. The paper argues that Green and Seidman’s support for Pan- Africanism was rooted in an attempt to question radically the applicability of mainstream economic theory to African conditions, and find an alternative framework to conceptualise African trade, institutions and economic integration. Ultimately the vision associated with Nkrumah and economists like Green and Seidman failed to gain any significant political legitimacy and ended in 1966 with Nkrumah’s overthrow. Yet, it is argued that the story of the ‘economics of African unity’ is a useful departure point to deepen our understanding of the relationship between economics and political imagination in postcolonial Africa.
    Keywords: Ann Seidman, Reginald H. Green, Ghan a, Pan-Africanism, Kwame Nkrumahn
    JEL: B24 B29 B31 P41
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Pejman Bahramian (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, via Mersin 10, Turkey); Mehmet Balcilar (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, via Mersin 10, Turkey); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria); Patrick T. kanda (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: The conduct of inflation targeting is heavily dependent on accurate inflation forecasts. Non-linear models have increasingly featured, along with linear counterparts, in the forecasting literature. In this study, we focus on forecasting South African infl ation by means of non-linear models and using a long historical dataset of seasonally-adjusted monthly inflation rates spanning from 1921:02 to 2013:01. For an emerging market economy such as South Africa, non-linearities can be a salient feature of such long data, hence the relevance of evaluating non-linear models' forecast performance. In the same vein, given the fact that 1969:10 marks the beginning of a protracted rising trend in South African inflation data, we estimate the models for an in-sample period of 1921:02-1966:09 and evaluate 24 step-ahead forecasts over an out-of-sample period of 1966:10-2013:01. In addition, using a weighted loss function specification, we evaluate the forecast performance of different non-linear models across various extreme economic environments and forecast horizons. In general, we find that no competing model consistently and significantly beats the LoLiMoT's performance in forecasting South African inflation.
    Keywords: Inflation, forecasting, non-linear models, weighted loss function, South Africa
    JEL: C32 E31 E52
    Date: 2014–04
  3. By: Burke, Marshall; Gong, Erick; Jones, Kelly M.
    Abstract: We examine how variation in local economic conditions has shaped the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Using data from over 200,000 individuals across 19 countries, we match biomarker data on individuals' HIV status to information on local rainfall shocks, a large source of variation in income for rural households. We estimate that infection rates in HIV-endemic rural areas increase by 11% for every recent drought, an effect that is statistically and economically significant. Income shocks explain up to 20% of the variation in HIV prevalence across African countries, suggesting policy approaches for HIV prevention that are distinct from existing efforts.
    Keywords: income shocks; HIV/AIDS; Africa
    JEL: I15 O12 O55
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Meagher, Kate; De Herdt, Tom; Titeca, Kristof
    Abstract: Widespread disillusionment with ‘failed state’ perspectives on African governance has drawn attention to new forms of order emerging on the ground in areas where the presence of the state is weak. The term ‘hybrid governance’ has emerged to refer to these new organizational arrangements, incorporating local institutions and popular organizations, which fill gaps in state capacity. Related concepts such as ‘governance without government’, ‘twilight institutions’, ‘real governance’ or ‘negotiated statehood’ view governance as the outcome of complex negotiations between a number of actors, groups and forces. Instead of focusing on fixing failed states, development practitioners and academics are asking new questions about whether more appropriate forms of order can be constructed by ‘working with the grain’ of local institutions. Given the burgeoning popularity of hybrid governance in current development thinking, it is worth asking if it is just new development jargon or does it provide a useful conceptual tool for facilitating more grounded and sustainable systems of organization in fragile parts of Africa?
    Keywords: Africa; governance
    Date: 2014–03
  5. By: Phiri, Horace; Edris, Abdi Khalil
    Abstract: This empirical study uses data from 1970 to 2010 to estimate levels of neopatrimonialism in Malawi. We then test how neopatrimonialism has affected policy-induced agriculture producer incentives. Three dimensions are used to measure neopatrimonialism – systematic clientelism, a power concentration index, and control of corruption. All were negatively related to the level of producer support provided farmers by government. This suggests that the manifestation of a patronage system creates policy-induced disincentives to agricultural production due to worsening corruption, concentration of political power, and a crowding out of development expenditure by the costs of maintaining a bloated civil service. This result reaffirms the belief that neopatrimonialism results in poor performance of the agricultural sector of countries in sub-Saharan Africa
    Keywords: productivity, Agricultural policies, Incentives, maize, neopatrimonialism, clientilism, corruption, producer support,
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Dankyi, Awere; Acheampong, Patricia; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Chapoto, Antony; Asamoah, Marian; Tripp, Robert
    Abstract: The study aims to provide up-to-date and rarely collected nationwide data and analysis on the patterns of adoption of improved technologies for maize in Ghana.
    Keywords: maize, Agricultural productivity, crop yield, improved technology, improved seed, fertilizer use, Herbicides,
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Ncube, Mthuli (African Development Bank); Brixiova, Zuzana (African Development Bank); Bicaba, Zorobabel (African Development Bank)
    Abstract: With the year 2015 – the MDG finishing line – approaching, post-2015 goals as they impact Africa need to be firmed. The goal of ending extreme poverty remains paramount. Globally, the World Bank set goals to end extreme poverty by 2030 and to promote shared prosperity in every society. We examine feasibility of these objectives for Sub-Saharan Africa, the world's poorest but rapidly rising region. We find that under plausible assumptions on consumption growth and redistribution, eliminating poverty by 2030 is out of the region's reach. Even under our 'best case' scenario of accelerated growth and redistribution from the richest 10 percent to the poorest 40 percent of the population, the poverty rate would still be around 10 percent in 2030. A more realistic goal for the region would be reducing poverty by a range from half to two thirds. At this rate, especially if in part achieved by lowering inequality, the Africa region would meaningfully contribute to the global agenda. Policies need to focus on mutually reinforcing objectives of making growth stronger, resilient to shocks, and inclusive.
    Keywords: poverty reduction, inequality, inclusive growth, Africa, numerical simulations
    JEL: I32 E21 J11 C63
    Date: 2014–04
  8. By: Ashraf, Quamrul; Galor, Oded; Klemp, Marc
    Abstract: This research establishes that migratory distance from the cradle of anatomically modern humans in East Africa and its effect on the distribution of genetic diversity across countries has a hump-shaped effect on nighttime light intensity per capita as observed by satellites, reflecting the trade-off between the beneficial and the detrimental effects of diversity on productivity. The finding lends further credence to the hypothesis that a significant portion of the variation in the standard of living across the globe can be attributed to factors that were determined in the distant past.
    Keywords: Nighttime light intensity, Out of Africa Hypothesis of Comparative Development, Genetic Diversity, Comparative Development, Migratory Distance from Africa
    JEL: N10 N30 N50 O10 O50 Z10
    Date: 2014–04–29
  9. By: Shames, Seth; Bernier, Quinn; Masiga, Moses
    Keywords: Climate change, Agricultural development, agricultural carbon projects, action research, capacity building,
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Andrea Szabo (University of Houston); Gergely Ujhelyi (University of Houston)
    Abstract: Nonpayment for public utilities is an important constraint to expanding service access in developing countries. As a potential policy response, this study implements and evaluates a randomized water education campaign in a low income peri-urban area in South Africa. We estimate substantial treatment effects: on the order of a 30% increase in payments over a three-month period. Surprisingly, these effects are not driven by an increase in households’ knowledge. We consider various possible explanations, and argue that the intervention likely had "nudging" effects on households. Our findings have important implications for understanding energy conservation and other public information campaigns.
    Keywords: nonpayment, information, water conservation
    JEL: Q25 Q28 H27 L95
    Date: 2014–04–21
  11. By: Mariana Llanos (GIGA Institute of Latin American Studies); Cordula Tibi Weber (GIGA Institute of Latin American Studies); Charlotte Heyl (GIGA Institute of African Affairs); Alexander Stroh (GIGA Institute of African Affairs)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the extent to which elected power holders informally intervene in the judiciaries of new democracies, an acknowledged but under-researched topic in studies of judicial politics. The paper first develops an empirical strategy for the study of informal interference based on perceptions recorded in interviews, then applies the strategy to six third-wave democracies, three in Africa (Benin, Madagascar and Senegal) and three in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Paraguay). It also examines how three conditioning factors affect the level of informal judicial interference: formal rules, previous democratic experience, and socioeconomic development. Our results show that countries with better performance in all these conditioning factors exhibit less informal interference than countries with poorer or mixed performance. The results stress the importance of systematically including informal politics in the study of judicial politics.
    Keywords: judicial politics, constitutional court, supreme court, Latin America, Franco-phone Africa, democratization, separation of powers, informal politics
    Date: 2014–04
  12. By: Wittenberg, Martin
    Abstract: South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994 engendered expectations of rapid changes in racial and gender disparities in wages. Twenty years after the transition there are strong disagreements about whether there have been gains and how these have been distributed. In particular there are debates about whether wage increases have outstripped productivity increases.
    Keywords: labour market analysis, labour statistics, data collecting, wages, employment, hours of work, labour productivity, trend, South Africa R, analyse du marché du travail, statistiques du travail, collecte des données, salaire, emploi, durée du travail, productivité du travail, tendance, Afrique du Sud R, análisis del mercado de mano de obra, estadísticas del trabajo, recopilación de datos, salario, empleo, horas de trabajo, productividad del trabajo, tendencia, República de Sudáfrica
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Woldu, Thomas; Abebe, Girum; Lamoot, Indra; Minten, Bart
    Abstract: We study food retail in Addis Ababa, one of the biggest cities in Africa. Based on a primary survey of food retail outlets selling cereals, fruits and vegetables, and processed foods, we note high variation in quality and prices in the city and an increasing differentiation in food retail markets in recent years. On the high-end, we see the emergence of domestic (as foreign direct investment in retail is not allowed) private modern retail outlets that deliver high quality products at high prices and that focus mostly on wealthier areas and consumers. At the other side, we see cooperative retail that delivers food at controlled and subsidized prices. The latter shops are characterized by typical price control policy problems, reflected in regular lack of supplies and queuing. It seems that food retail markets would be improved by stimulating the emergence of a competitive private retail sector, the abolishment of price controls, and targeted subsidies or safety nets for the poor.
    Keywords: cooperative retail, Food retail, modern private retail, urban markets,
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein
    Abstract: This study uses five rounds of household panel data from Tigray, Ethiopia, collected in the period 1998–2010 to assess the impacts of a land registration and certification program that aimed to strengthen tenure security and how it has contributed to increased food availability and, thus, food security in this food-deficit region. Results show that land certification appears to have contributed to enhanced calorie availability (calorie intake), and more so for female-headed households, either through enhanced land rental market participation or increased investment and productivity on owner-operated land. Results also show that members of households that accessed additional land through the land rental market had a significantly higher body mass index.
    Keywords: food security, Land tenure, Gender, Women, land registration, Nutritional status, households, land tenure reform, household data, tenure security, land certification, Land rental markets,
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Dankyi, Awere; Acheampong, Patricia; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Chapoto, Antony; Asamoah, Marian; Tripp, Robert
    Abstract: This study aims to provide up-to-date analysis using rarely collected nationwide data on the patterns of adoption of improved technologies for rice in Ghana.
    Keywords: rice, Agricultural productivity, crop yield, improved technology, improved seed, fertilizer use, Herbicides,
    Date: 2013
  16. By: Vandercasteelen, Joachim; Dereje, Mekdim; Minten, Bart; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
    Keywords: technology, yield, Teff, Cereal crops, Productivity, Improvement,
    Date: 2013
  17. By: Woldu, Thomas; Tadesse, Fanaye; Waller, Marie-Katherine
    Abstract: This paper uses a rich dataset from a survey undertaken by the Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA) and the Interna-tional Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2009 in eight woredas in seven regions of Ethiopia with a sample of 1,117 households and 73 agricultural cooperatives. Using descriptive statistics and econometric analysis under a critical gender lens, the paper identifies which cooperative, household, and individual level characteristics influence women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives. The findings suggest that a major barrier to women’s access are gender biases within households, communities, and cooperatives themselves that favor educated male household heads and land owners over resource-poor women.
    Keywords: Cooperatives, agricultural cooperatives, Women, Gender, women empowerment, Women in agriculture., Participation, Gender equality, Household behavior,
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Wittenberg, Martin (DataFirst, University of Cape Town); Pirouz, Farah (DataFirst, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: Earnings questions have been asked in South Africa's national surveys annually since 1994. A key question for labour economists has been to track and explain the evolution of earnings over this post-apartheid period. Unfortunately, however, the measurement instrument has changed in ways that make it tricky to simply take the raw figures and compare them even if one restricts the attention to the October Household Surveys and the various Labour Force Surveys. In this paper we analyse some of the changes and indicate where corrections are needed. We implement many of these changes in the second release of PALMS, the Post-Apartheid Labour Market Series (Kerr, Lam and Wittenberg 2013). The structure of the paper is as follows. In section 2 we review studies done on the earnings variables in the national surveys from Statistics South Africa, particularly those that comment on the comparability of the variables over time. In Section 3 we pay attention in more detail to the evolution of the measurement instrument. We then turn to an analysis of the actual responses in section 4 with a view to pinpointing where the underlying measurements may have changed. The following sections deal with ways of handling bracket information and missing data respectively . In section 8 we look at the impact of these data quality adjustments on the estimation of average real earnings over time.
    Keywords: earnings; PALMS, the Post-Apartheid Labour Market Series
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Nyongo, Lovemore
    Abstract: This study tests the long-run and short-run integration of maize markets in Malawi using the co-integration approach within the Vector Autoregressive modeling framework. The analysis is extended to Wald-F Granger Causality tests to see the direction of causality between maize markets. A total of six maize markets, two from each region, were analyzed. Three are urban markets, while two of the three rural markets are border markets. The study uses monthly maize retail prices for the period January 2000 to May 2008. Study findings show that nine out of the fifteen market pairs are integrated in the long-run, but the degree of short-run market integration is low, implying that the transmission of price information is slow.
    Keywords: maize, Prices, Markets, Market integration, co-integration, transaction costs, price transmission,
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Peterman, Amber; Billings, Lucy; Behrman, Julia A.
    Abstract: Progressive legislative actions in Uganda and Tanzania have improved women’s legal rights to land, however significant gender disparities persist in access, control, inheritance, and ownership of land at the grassroots level. One promising mechanism to improve the implementation of laws is through Community–based Legal Aid (CBLA) programs, which are typically designed as pro–poor to enhance legal empowerment of marginalized groups...A qualitative study of CBLA programs in Uganda and Tanzania was conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to assess the efficacy of CBLA activities, understand challenges faced by CBLA implementing organizations, and document opportunities and potential for scaling–up.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, land governance, Land rights, assets, Land ownership, Empowerment, Land inheritance, legal rights,
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Thierry Pairault (CCJ - Chine, Corée, Japon - CNRS : UMR8173 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Université Paris VII - Paris Diderot)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review available statistical and in-formational databases in order to understand the actual importance of Chinese direct investment in Africa and to infer its strategic significance. Hence, I shall successively present three main data and information sources, then summarize some observations they allow, and finally question the role and strategies of those Chinese enterprises investing in Africa which are under the direct super-vision of the Chinese government.
    Keywords: China;Afrique;investissement direct étranger;IDE;entreprises publiques
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
    Keywords: agricultural transformation, value chain, Teff, Agricultural prices,
    Date: 2013
  23. By: Minten, Bart; Koro, Bethlehem; Stifel, David
    Abstract: Based on unique data from a quasi-experimental setting in northwestern Ethiopia, this study examines the “last mile(s)â€â€”from the input distribution center to the farmer—in the chemical fertilizer and improved seed distribution system. We find that increasing transaction and transportation costs over a 35 kilometer distance, along a route mainly accessible to foot traffic only, lead to a 50 percent increase of the prices of chemical fertilizer and to a 75 percent reduction in its use.
    Keywords: Agricultural inputs, modern inputs, fertilizer, improved seed, remoteness,
    Date: 2013
  24. By: Phiri, Horace; Edriss, Abdi Khalil
    Abstract: Malawi has struggled to achieve sustained agricultural growth over the last four decades. As such there is need for in-creased investment and supportive policies if greater success is to be realized. As a prerequisite to identifying the role that improved policies and investment can play, a better understanding is needed of the incentives that producers in the agricultural sector obtain currently. However, research on the subject has been scanty. For this study, annual Producer Subsidy Equivalent (PSE) for the staple food crop, maize, were calculated for the period 1970 to 2010.
    Keywords: maize, Agricultural growth, Agricultural policies, Taxes, producer subsidy equivalent (PSE),
    Date: 2013
  25. By: Tamru, Seneshaw
    Abstract: This study looks at the extent of and changes in spatial integration of cereal markets in Ethiopia over the last ten years. Based on weekly wholesale prices of the Ethiopian Grain Trade Enterprise (EGTE) and covering all major cereals in the country (three major types of teff [i.e., white, mixed, and red], white wheat, maize, and white sorghum), spatial integration of Addis Ababa with the most important regional wholesale markets in the country is analyzed. The estimation results indicate market integration has considerably improved over the last ten years for teff, wheat, and maize with faster price adjustments and lower estimated transaction costs. On the other hand, for white sorghum integration of regional markets with Addis Ababa did not improve over the last decade.
    Keywords: Market integration, cereal markets, Commodity markets, Cereal crops,
    Date: 2013
  26. By: Muriithi, Beatrice; Matz, Julia
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of smallholder vegetable commercialization through the export and domestic market channels on household income and assets in Kenya. We use a survey panel dataset, which allows us to control for unobserved heterogeneity across households, and show that the commercialization of vegetables through both market channels contributes positively to welfare, even when addressing the issue of selection into commercialization. While the production of vegetables for the export market is consistently associated with income in a positive way, the results for asset holdings as the measure of household welfare are weaker and supportive only for the domestic market channel, which weakens the notion of smallholder commercialization being a “pro-poor” strategy.
    Keywords: horticulture, commercialization, welfare, poverty, smallholders, Kenya, Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, O12, O13, Q13, Q17,
    Date: 2014–04
  27. By: Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
    Abstract: We study the value chain of teff, Ethiopia’s most important staple food crop by area and value. Based on large-scale primary surveys, we find significant changes in the last decade. First, there is increasing adoption of modern inputs (chemical fertilizer, improved varieties, and herbicides) by farmers, especially by those living close to urban centers. Second, quality demands are rising and there are important shifts from the cheap red varieties to the more expensive white ones. Third, we see an increasing willingness-to-pay for convenience in urban areas, as illustrated by the emergence of one-stop retail shops as well as by a sizable food service industry. Fourth, the share of rural–urban marketing, urban distribution, and milling margins in final retail prices is declining, indicating improved marketing efficiency over time.
    Keywords: value chain, staple crops, Food crops, Grain, Cereal crops, Teff, Agricultural inputs,
    Date: 2013
  28. By: Brendan Maughan-Brown (SALDRU, School of Economics, University of Cape Town); Susan Godlonton (Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan); Rebecca L. Thornton (Department of Economics, University of Michigan); Atheendar S Venkataramani (Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University)
    Abstract: Objective: To examine whether individuals who learn that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) partially reduces female-to-male HIV transmission erroneously infer a reduction in male-to-female HIV transmission risk. Design: Cluster randomised controlled trial. Methods: In 2008, information that VMMC reduces female-to-male HIV transmission risk was randomly disseminated to men in rural Malawi, with follow-up in 2009 (n=917). Data was collected on perceived male and female HIV-transmission risks. We assessed whether beliefs about male circumcision and female HIV-risk varied by receipt of VMMC information and by whether or not individuals believed that VMMC partially protects men from HIV-infection. Results: Men informed about VMMC were more likely to believe that sex with a circumcised male would confer lower transmission risk for women vis-à-vis sex with an uncircumcised male (38% versus 50%, p0.01). Multivariate regression analyses showed that incorrect inferences were most likely to be made by those who believed that circumcised men were partially protected from contracting HIV. Consistent with this, instrumental variable analyses indicated that those individuals who received information about VMMC, and consequently believed it, were 82 percentage points more likely to believe that male circumcision also protects women (p0.01). The inferred reduction in direct HIV infection risk for women due to male circumcision was approximately 50%. Conclusions: Our results suggest the need for VMMC campaigns to make explicit that male circumcision does not directly protect women from HIV-infection. It is also important to assess whether incorrect inferences lead to updated self-perceived HIV-risk and the adoption of riskier sexual behaviours.
    Keywords: Male circumcision, female HIV risk, risk compensation, Southern Africa, HIV/AIDS, prevention, information campaigns
    Date: 2013
  29. By: Houssou, Nazaire; Diao, Xinshen; Cossar, Frances; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Jimah, Kipo; Aboagye, Patrick Ohene
    Abstract: The Government of Ghana (GoG) since 2007 has been providing subsidized agricultural machines to individual farmers and private enterprises established as specialized Agricultural Mechanization Services Enterprise Centers (AMSECs) to offer tractor-hire services to small-scale farmers across the country. Current demand in the country is primarily focused on land preparation services, especially plowing. This paper assesses whether AMSEC enterprises are a viable business model attractive to private investors. Using firm investment theory and field-based data on costs, revenues, and tractor efficiency, this research examines the profitability of specialized agricultural mechanization service provision with a focus on land preparation. Findings suggest that the AMSEC model is not a viable business model, even with the current level of subsidy. Low operational scale is the most important constraint to the profitability of investment in specialized agricultural mechanization service provision. With such a low operational scale, it is essential to consider various options for introducing low-cost, small tractors suited to the current farming scale in the country. Also, a used tractor model is one of the options available for policymakers in the country. Tractor-hire services can play an important role in transforming smallholder agriculture, but with heavy subsidies on big and costly tractors, the subsidy policy can distort supply chain development. As a result, many better-suited and lower-cost machines are unlikely to be introduced into local markets.
    Keywords: Agricultural machinery, Land preparation, mechanization, Private investment, Small farmers,
    Date: 2013
  30. By: Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Josephson, Anna; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
    Abstract: This paper explores the race between these two countervailing forces, with the goal of informing two important policy questions. First, how do rural Ethiopians adapt to land constraints? And second, do land constraints significantly influence welfare outcomes in rural Ethiopia? To answer these questions we use a recent household survey of high-potential areas. We first show that farm sizes are generally very small in the Ethiopian highlands and declining over time, with young rural households facing particularly severe land constraints. We then ask whether smaller and declining farm sizes are inducing agricultural intensification, and if so, how. We find strong evidence in favor of the Boserupian hypothesis that land-constrained villages typically use significantly more purchased input costs per hectare and more family labor, and achieve higher maize and teff yields and high gross income per hectare.
    Keywords: Land, Population density, Intensification, Farm size, Agricultural intensification, Land pressures,
    Date: 2013
  31. By: Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
    Abstract: This study explored empirically the Impact of Investment in Education on Economic Growth in Nigeria between 1975 and 2012. The study is borne out of the curiosity to determine as claimed by the UNDP and other multilateral institutions the prominent roles play by the education in the growth and development of a developing nation like Nigeria. More so, the agitation of Association of Staff Union of Nigeria University of Nigeria (ASUU) that the federal government should invest more to develop infrastructures in our University. The research took the form of analytical/quantitative dimension; the quantitative technique is used in analysing data collected. Restricted Error Correction model is used with the aid of Econometrics View Package (E- view). In the study, Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) is used as proxy for economic growth, Government Capital Expenditure on Education (GKEE), Government Recurrent Expenditure on Education (GREE) are proxy to investment in human capital, Gross Capital Formation (GCF) as proxy for Capital and Post Primary School enrolment as a proxy for labour. The empirical analysis revealed that investment in human capital, in form of education and capacities building through training have positive impacts on economic growth in Nigeria. It is therefore, recommended that for effective and speedy economic growth and development in Nigeria, the government, should shoulder the major responsibility of financing primary, secondary and tertiary education, as these provide solid foundation for human capital formation which no country can do anything meaningful without. The other stakeholders like beneficiaries (students/parents), employer of labour, non-governmental organisation, community-based organisation should also collaborate with government to provide sufficient finance for the development of this sector as we all know that the sector has its product as merit-goods. The ASUU's agitation and educational financing policy prescription on funding of the educational system most especially University (Agent of Change) should be jealously observed and implemented.
    Keywords: Investment in Education, Economic Growth.
    JEL: E22
    Date: 2014–02
  32. By: Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Cervigni, Raffaello
    Keywords: Climate change, Climate adaptation,
    Date: 2013
  33. By: Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Kolavalli, Shashidhara
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify strategies to reduce aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts in Ghana in order to enable the development of competitive and safe groundnut-based value-adding enterprises. We examine the quality assur-ance institutions with oversight on the groundnut value chain and the perceptions and practices of farmers and other agents along that value chain. We also test for aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts and groundnut products that have received varying degrees of processing.
    Keywords: Groundnuts, Cash crops, Food processing, aflatoxins, value chain,
    Date: 2013
  34. By: Van Aelst, Katrien
    Abstract: This working paper briefly compares statistical, economic and anthropological views of the household, and describes the main determinants of intrahousehold bargaining and decision-making powers. Next, it discusses the shortcomings of the economic household models: their lack of attention to social norms and the non-bargaining area (i.e. the possibility of latent decision-making or non-decision-making). Additional insights in the Tanzanian household context are gained, through empirical evidence from the academic literature and the Tanzanian Demographic and Health Surveys; as well as from the country’s legislation.
    Keywords: Tanzania; household decision-making; gender
    Date: 2014–04
  35. By: Tripp, Robert; Mensah-Bonsu, Akwesi
    Abstract: This paper examines the current status and recent changes in Ghana’s commercial seed system for field crops. It includes a review of present performance and an examination of the factors that might influence the course of seed system develop-ment in the near future. The paper is timely because a number of changes in policies, regulations, responsibilities, and commercial interests mean that this could be a period of significant transition for Ghana’s seed sector, perhaps marking an end to the stagnation and complacency that have characterized the sector for the past several decades.
    Keywords: Seed markets, seed system, commercial sector, Private sector, Agricultural policy, Research and development, Agricultural research, Agricultural inputs,
    Date: 2013
  36. By: Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
    Keywords: Water management, Sustainability, Land management, River basins,
    Date: 2014
  37. By: Gêmo, Hélder; Chilonda, Pius
    Abstract: This paper assesses critical factors that constrained the successful implementation of the National Agrarian Extension Program, (PRONEA, from Programa Nacional de Extensão Agrária), by MINAG’s National Directorate of Agrarian Extension (DNEA, from Direcção Nacional de Extensão Agrária), which resulted in a decision to halt PRONEA in 2010, three years after its launch. A conceptual framework for planning and implementing programs and strengthening pluralistic agricultural extension and advisory systems identified factors that should ideally have been taken into account before launching PRONEA in order to reduce the risk of failure. The analysis was based on a review of the literature about agricultural extension in Mozambique, official documents, interviews with key informants and experts, and field visits to various provinces.
    Keywords: extension activities, extension programs, Extension reform, Agricultural policies, Monitoring and evaluation,
    Date: 2013
  38. By: Johnson, Nancy; Njuki, Jemimah; Waithanji, Elizabeth; Nhambeto, Marinho; Rogers, Martha; Kruger, Elizabeth Hutchinson
    Abstract: This paper looks at the gendered impacts of a development project that provided improved dairy cattle and training as part of a broader effort to develop a smallholder-friendly, market-oriented dairy value chain in Manica province, Mozambique. The project targeted households, registered cows in the name of the household head, and, initially, trained registered cow owners in various aspects of dairy production and marketing. Subsequently training was expanded to two members per household to increase the capacity within households to care for cows, a change which resulted in a significant number of women being trained.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, assets, Dairy, Property rights, Livestock, Smallholders, mixed methods,
    Date: 2013
  39. By: Ojeaga, Paul; Odejimi, Deborah
    Abstract: This study investigates factors that affect sociability ratings among youths between 10 to 30 years of age in Nigeria, using a survey carried out in Ife town. The results show that in- school females were likely to socialize more than out of school females. Schooling was found to be affecting youth sociability rating in general. There was also a noticeable level of reduced socialization among out of school youths as it was found that they were less likely to interact as much as in-school youths owing to their family backgrounds. The implication of the findings is that schooling does affect the level of social interaction among youths in general since youths out of school had some level of inferiority complex that prevented them from socializing with in-school youths.
    Keywords: Extraversion, Gender Comparison, Schooling, Sociability
    JEL: J11 J16
    Date: 2013–07–13
  40. By: Mogues, Tewodaj; Omusu-Baah, Kwaku
    Abstract: This paper offers insights into the current status of agricultural expenditure decentralization and draws out the likely implications of this stage in the decentralization process for agricultural service delivery and national strategies.
    Keywords: Agricultural policies, decentralisation,
    Date: 2014
  41. By: Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
    Abstract: The study explored empirically the role of agriculture in development of Nigeria between 1981 and 2012. The study is borne out of the curiosity to examine the role agriculture plays in the development of a nation having being neglected in this part of the world over a considerable period of time by the government and policy makers while the whole attention is paid on the crude oil. The term-paper takes analytical and quantitative dimension. The quantitative technique is employed in a multivariate study with the adaptation of the Solow Growth model that include Capital proxy by Gross Capital Formation (GCF), labour proxy by post secondary school enrolment, Agricultural Output and Economic Growth and Development proxy by RGDP. Restricted Error Correction Model is used with the aid of Econometrics View Package (e-view). The study reveals that the Agriculture plays a significant role in economic development of the nation. In addition, the sector has been neglected to the extent that its contribution to the GDP has been dwindling since 90’s. Consequently, the barriers to the agricultural sector performances were identified and the necessary policy recommendations were proffered.
    Keywords: Agriculture productivity, Growth and Development
    JEL: Q1
    Date: 2014–02
  42. By: Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
    Abstract: The argument concerning the contribution of energy towards the growth objective and the adverse environmental impact its consumption brings along are contentious, whether to reduce energy consumption in order to reduce negative externality as it is just an intermediate input which its contribution is insignificant to the accomplishment of growth objective is the curiosity behind this study. The study empirically examined the impact of energy consumption and carbon emission on economic growth in Nigeria between 1981 and 2011. The research takes analytical/quantitative dimension. It is a multivariate study by including in the model two conventional determinants of Economic Growth, Capital proxy by Gross Capital Formation, labour proxy by labour participation rate, and other variables of study which are electricity consumption, energy use kt in oil equivalent and Co2 emission. Restricted Error Correction Model (VAR) is used, Impulse Response function was carried out and the necessary diagnostic tests were examined with the aid of Econometrics View Package (E- view). The study reveals that the long run relationship exists among the variables and electricity contributes significantly to the economic growth. Further investigation using Granger causality analysis to examine the causal directions among the variables reveals bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth and indicates unidirectional causality running from energy use kt of oil to carbon emission. This brings the study to conclusion that electricity is not just an intermediate input; its contribution to the accomplishment of growth objective cannot be relegated to the background. Hence, Nigeria can pursue triple goals of energy security by exploiting renewable energy source, environmental sustainability and sustainable inclusive growth. Therefore necessary recommendations were made.
    Keywords: Energy Consumption, Carbon Emission, Economic Growth
    JEL: Q43
    Date: 2014–01–06
  43. By: de Brauw, Alan; Mueller, Valerie; Woldehanna, Tassew
    Abstract: In this paper, we use a unique panel dataset of tracked migrants and non-migrants that originate from 18 villages in Ethiopia to examine the welfare impacts of internal migration. Using a number of techniques and various objective and subjective measures, we measure the impacts of migration on the welfare of migrants versus non-migrants. We find large gains to objective welfare measures such as consumption, around 110 percent. Gains are larger among male and urban migrants. Howev-er, we also find that relative to household heads subjective welfare measures are similar for migrants. The large welfare gains to migration suggest that barriers exist, even within countries such as Ethiopia, against the free movement of people to places where they would be objectively better off.
    Keywords: Migration, Internal migration, Living standards., tracking survey,
    Date: 2013
  44. By: Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim
    Abstract: In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have direct dietary impacts on nutrition in addition to any indirect effects via income. We test this hypothesis for the dairy sector in rural Ethiopia, a context in which markets are very thin, own-consumption shares are very high, and milk is an important source of animal-based proteins and micronutrients for young children
    Keywords: Dairy, Nutrition, Children, Milk production, malnutrition, child nutrition, stunting,
    Date: 2014
  45. By: Adeyinka, Adedeji; Salau, Sheu; Vollrath, Dietrich
    Abstract: We document that structural change accounts for approximately one-fifth of the total change in labor productivity in Nigeria between 1996 and 2009. Labor moved out of the agricultural and wholesale and retail trade sectors into manufacturing, transportation and communications, business services, and general services. While structural change did occur in this period, significant gains to aggregate labor productivity are still available from further shifts of labor to higher-productivity sectors. We discuss the factors limiting structural change, which include poor agricultural productivity, insufficient infrastruc-ture to support high productivity sectors, and a lack of appropriate skills in the labor force. We calculate that the gains still available to Nigeria from structural change are equivalent to an increase in value-added of 25 percent, given the existing productivity levels of sectors in 2009.
    Keywords: structural change, Agricultural productivity, Labor productivity, sector composition,
    Date: 2013
  46. By: Chitalu M. Chama-Chiliba (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria); Steven F. Koch (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: This paper examines regional differences in the effect of user fee removal in rural areas of Zambia on the use of health institutions for delivery. The analysis uses quarterly longitudinal data covering 2003q1-2008q4. When unobserved heterogeneity, spatial dependence and quantitative supply-side factors are incorporated in the Interrupted Time Series (ITS) design, user fee removal is found to immediately increase aggregate institutional deliveries, although the national trend was unaffected. Drug availability and the presence of traditional birth attendants also influence institutional deliveries at the national level, such that, in the short-term, strengthening and improving community-based interventions could increase institutional deliveries. However, there is significant variation and spatial dependence masked in the aggregate analysis. The results highlight the importance of service quality in promoting institutional deliveries, and also suggest that social and cultural factors, especially in rural areas, influence the use of health facilities for delivery. These factors are not easily addressed, through an adjustment to the cost of delivery in health facilities.
    Keywords: Maternal care, Institutional deliveries, User fees, Spatial dependence
    JEL: I10 I18 I19 R10 R15 R58
    Date: 2014–04
  47. By: Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
    Abstract: The study examines The Informal Sector and Employment Generation in Nigeria. The study takes a quantitative dimension and employed pure descriptive statistics for its analysis. The study developed the appropriate theoretical framework for the discourse. There is finding that the informal sector plays significant role not only in employment generation but as well as contributing immensely to economic growth. As a result, problems bedevilling the sectors were identified alongside the prospects of the sector to the employment generation and booming of the economy. Ultimately, informal sector employment generation policies measures were highlighted as the way forward.
    Keywords: Informal sector and Employment generation.
    JEL: E26
    Date: 2014–02
  48. By: Pannell, David J; Llewellyn, Rick S; Corbeels, Marc
    Abstract: The farm-level economics of conservation agriculture (zero tillage, mulching and crop rotation)are described, reviewed and modelled. The economics are defined broadly to include not just shortterm financial benefits and costs, but also the whole-farm management context, constraints on key resources such as labour and capital, risk and uncertainty, interactions between enterprises, and time-related factors, such as interest rates and the urgency of providing for the farm family. A wealth of evidence shows that these economic factors and variables related to them have significant influences on farmers’ decisions about adoption of conservation agriculture. Literature on the farmlevel economics of conservation agriculture for resource-poor farmers is reviewed. There is not a large body of high-quality relevant studies. Those that have been published highlight that the economics are highly heterogeneous and need to be considered on a case-by-case basis. Their results tend to indicate that it would be profitable to adopt conservation agriculture or components of it (although not in all cases). This contrasts with disappointing adoption in many of the regions of interest. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed. A general model of the farm-level economics of conservation agriculture and its components is presented, and used to illustrate influences on the overall economic attractiveness of conservation agriculture. Key factors that would tend to discourage adoption in situations that otherwise look favourable include: the opportunity cost of crop residues for feed rather than mulch, the short-term reduction in yields under zero tillage plus mulching in some cases, combined with short planning horizons and/or high discount rates of farmers, farmer aversion to uncertainty, and constraints on the availability of land, labour and capital at key times of year. Good quality economic analysis should be used more extensively to guide research and extension in this area, particularly in relation to the targeting of effort, and adaptation of the system to suit local conditions.
    Keywords: zero tillage, legume rotation, mulching, crop residue retention, risk, uncertainty, adoption of innovations, cropping system, Zimbabwe, maize, groundnuts, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2013–08–01
  49. By: Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein
    Abstract: Taking advantage of a unique quasi-experi-mental survey design, this study analyzes the productivity impacts of the Ethiopian land certification program by identify-ing how the investment effects (technological gains) would measure up against the benefits from any improvements in input use intensity (technical efficiency). For this purpose, we adopted a data envelopment analysis-based Malmquist-type productivity index to decompose productivity differences into (1) within-group farm efficiency differences, reflecting the technical efficiency effect, and (2) differences in the group production frontier, reflecting the long-term investment (technological) effects. The results show that farms without a land use certificate are, on aggregate, less productive than those with formalized use rights.
    Keywords: Land rights, Land ownership, productivity, land certification, data envelopment analysis, Malmquist index, quasi experimental design,
    Date: 2014

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