nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2013‒05‒05
twelve papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. Plot and Household-Level Determinants of Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rural Tanzania By Kassie, Menale; Jaleta, Moti; Shiferaw, Bekele; Mmbando, Frank; Muricho, Geoffrey
  2. South-South migration and the labor market: Evidence from South Africa By Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda; Mariapia Mendola
  3. Amazing maize in Malawi: Input subsidies, factor productivity and land use intensification By Holden, Stein
  4. Mapping Marginality Hotspots – Geographical Targeting for Poverty Reduction By Graw, Valerie; Husmann (née Ladenburger), Christine
  5. On the effectiveness of foreign aid in institutional quality By Asongu , Simplice A
  6. The Surprisingly Dire Situation of Children's Education in Rural West Africa: Results from the CREO Study in Guinea-Bissau By Peter Boone; Ila Fazzio; Kameshwari Jandhyala; Chitra Jayanty; Gangadhar Jayanty; Simon Johnson; Vimala Ramachandrin; Filipa Silva; Zhaoguo Zhan
  7. Exchange Control and SADC Regional Integration By Ellyne, Mark; Chater, Rachel
  8. Protests and Beliefs in Social Coordination in Africa By Marc Sangnier; Yanos Zylberberg
  9. Coping with Fuelwood Scarcity: Household Responses in Rural Ethiopia By Damte, Abebe; Koch, Steven F.; Mekonnen, Alemu
  10. Urban Agriculture, Price Volatility.Drought ,And Food Security In Developing Countries. By Jatta, Sylvester
  11. Dynamiques foncières, investissements et modèles de production pour l'irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest : logiques financières contre cohérences sociales ? By Jean-François Bélières; Jean-Yves Jamin; Sidy Mohamed Seck; Jean-Philippe Tonneau; Amandine Adamczewski; Pierre-Yves Le-Gal
  12. Intrahousehold Distribution and Poverty: Evidence from Côte dIvoire By Olivier Bargain; Olivier Donni; Prudence Kwenda

  1. By: Kassie, Menale; Jaleta, Moti; Shiferaw, Bekele; Mmbando, Frank; Muricho, Geoffrey
    Abstract: Soil fertility depletion is considered the main biophysical limiting factor to increasing per capita food production for most smallholder farmers in Africa. The adoption and diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs), as a way to tackle this impediment, has become an important issue in the development policy agenda for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the adoption decisions for SAPs, using multiple cross-sectional plot-level observations, collected in 2010 from 681 farm households and 1,539 plots, in 4 districts and 88 villages of rural Tanzania. We employ a multivariate probit technique to model simultaneous adoption decisions by farm households. Our study reveals that rainfall shocks, insects and disease shocks, government effectiveness, tenure status of plot, social capital, plot location and size, and asset ownership, all influence the adoption decision of sustainable practices. Policies that target SAPs and are aimed at organizing farmers into associations, improving land tenure security, and enhancing skills of civil servants can increase the likelihood that smallholder farmers will adopt SAPs.
    Keywords: sustainable practices, multiple adoption, multivariate probit, Tanzania
    JEL: C01 O55 Q01 Q16
    Date: 2012–01–27
  2. By: Giovanni Facchini (University of Nottingham, University of Milan, Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano, CEPR and CES–Ifo); Anna Maria Mayda (Georgetown University, Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano, CEPR and IZA); Mariapia Mendola (University of Milan Bicocca and Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano)
    Abstract: Using census data for 1996, 2001 and 2007 we study the labor market effect of immigration to South Africa. The paper contributes to a small but growing literature on the impact of South-South migration by looking at one of the most attractive destinations for migrant workers in Sub–Saharan Africa. We exploit the variation – both at the district level and at the national one – in the share of foreign–born male workers across schooling and experience groups over time. At the district level, we estimate that increased immigration has a negative and significant effect on natives’ employment rates – and that this effect is more negative for skilled and white South African native workers – but not on total income. These results are robust to using an instrumental variable estimation strategy. At the national level, we find that increased immigration has a negative and significant effect on na-tives’ total income but not on employment rates. Our results are consistent with outflows of natives to other districts as a consequence of migration, as in Borjas (2006).
    Keywords: Immigration, Labor market effects, South Africa
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2013–04–24
  3. By: Holden, Stein (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: The paper uses three years of household farm plot panel data (2006-2009), covering six districts in central and southern Malawi to assess factor productivity and farming system development under the input subsidy program. All farm plots of the households were measured with GPS. Maize production intensified in this period as maize area shares of the total farm size were reduced while input use intensity and yields increased. Yields of improved maize were significantly (+323 kg/ha) higher than for local maize. Improved maize seeds were used on only half of the maize plots that received subsidized fertilizer causing fertilizer use inefficiency.
    Keywords: Maize; Malawi; improved varieties; input subsidies; fertilizer use efficiency; land productivity; farming system changes
    JEL: Q16 Q18
    Date: 2013–04–24
  4. By: Graw, Valerie; Husmann (née Ladenburger), Christine
    Abstract: This mapping approach aims to make the marginalized and poor visible by identifying areas with difficult biophysical and socio-economic conditions. Mapping using different data sources and data types gives deeper insight into possible causal interlinkages and offers the opportunity for comprehensive analysis. The maps highlight areas where different dimensions of marginality overlap – the marginality hotspots – based on proxies for marginality dimensions representing different spheres of life. Furthermore, overlaying the marginality hotspots with the number of poor shows where most of the poor could be reached to help them to escape the spiral of poverty. Marginality hotspots can be found in particular in India and Nepal as well as in several countries in Central and Eastern Africa, such as Eritrea, Mozambique, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Northern Sudan and large parts of Niger. Maps showing the overlap between marginality and poverty highlight that the largest number of marginalized poor are located in India and Bangladesh, as well as in Ethiopia, Southeastern Africa and some parts of Western Africa.
    Keywords: GIS, Marginality, Poverty Mapping, Hotspot Mapping, Spheres of Life, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2012–01
  5. By: Asongu , Simplice A
    Abstract: We extend the Okada & Samreth (2012, EL) and Asongu (2012, EB) debate on ‘the effect of foreign aid on corruption’ by: not partially negating the former’s methodological underpinning (as in the latter’s approach) with a unifying empirical framework and; broadening the horizon of inquiry from corruption to eight institutional quality dynamics (rule of law, regulation quality, government effectiveness, democracy, corruption, voice & accountability, control of corruption and political stability). Core to this extension is a hypothetical contingency of the ‘institutional perils of foreign aid’ on existing institutional quality such that, the institutional downside of development assistance maybe questionable when greater domestic institutional development has taken place. Based on the hypothesis of institutional thresholds for foreign aid effectiveness, the perilous character of development assistance to institutional quality is broadly confirmed in 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010.
    Keywords: Foreign Aid; Political Economy; Development; Africa
    JEL: B20 F35 F50 O10 O55
    Date: 2013–02–08
  6. By: Peter Boone; Ila Fazzio; Kameshwari Jandhyala; Chitra Jayanty; Gangadhar Jayanty; Simon Johnson; Vimala Ramachandrin; Filipa Silva; Zhaoguo Zhan
    Abstract: We conducted a survey covering 20% of villages with 200-1000 population in rural Guinea-Bissau. We interviewed household heads, care-givers of children, and their teachers and schools. We analysed results from 9,947 children, aged 7-17, tested for literacy and numeracy competency. Only 27% of children were able to add two single digits, and just 19% were able to read and comprehend a simple word. Our unannounced school checks found 72% of enrolled children in grades 1-4 attending their schools, but the schools were poorly equipped. Teachers were present at 86% of schools visited. Despite surveying 351 schools, we found no examples of successful schools where children reached reasonable levels of literacy and numeracy for age. Our evidence suggests that interventions that raise school quality in these villages, rather than those which target enrolment, may be most important to generate very sharp improvements in children's educational outcomes.
    Keywords: Education, Africa, survey results, numeracy, literacy
    JEL: O1 O55 I2 F35 H43
    Date: 2013–04
  7. By: Ellyne, Mark; Chater, Rachel
    Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of foreign exchange and capital controls in the context of the Southern African Development Community’s goal of regional integration. It reviews the theory and evidence surrounding current and capital account liberalisation and argues that there is a lack of sufficiently refined de jure measures of capital account openness. A new index for measuring exchange control restrictiveness is created based on data from the International Monetary Fund’s Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (AREAER) for the 15 SADC member states. It identifies substantial variation in the exchange control regulations across SADC countries that other existing, more indices fail to account for. The new index illustrates the considerable range of variation of exchange restrictiveness within SADC, as well as illustrating SADC’s relative exchange restrictiveness compared with other countries, inside and outside of Africa. The new index also correlates with several measures of financial development, certain balance of payment items, and some measures of institutional development, which makes it a useful measure for SADC integration. The paper highlights the challenges for SADC monetary union in the sphere of exchange control.
    Keywords: Exchange controls, SADC, capital controls, regional integration
    JEL: F15 F55
    Date: 2013–03–30
  8. By: Marc Sangnier (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS & EHESS); Yanos Zylberberg (CREI, Universitat Pompeu Fabra)
    Abstract: Leaders’ misbehaviors may durably undermine the credibility of the state. Using individual level survey in the aftermath of geo-localized social protests in Africa, we find that trust in monitoring institutions and beliefs in social coordination strongly evolve after riots, together with trust in leaders. As no signs of social unrest can be recorded before, the social conflict can be interpreted as a sudden signal sent on a leader’s action from which citizens extract information on the country’s institutions. Our interpretation is the following. Agents lend their taxes to a leader with imperfect information on the leader’s type and the underlying capacity of institutions to monitor her. A misbehavior is then interpreted as a failure of institutions to secure taxes given by citizens and makes agents (i) reluctant to contribute to the state effort, (ii) skeptical about the contributions of others.
    Keywords: Social conflicts, norms of cooperation, trust, institutions.
    JEL: D74 D83 H41 O17
    Date: 2013–04
  9. By: Damte, Abebe; Koch, Steven F.; Mekonnen, Alemu
    Abstract: This study uses survey data from randomly selected rural households in Ethiopia to examine the coping mechanisms employed by rural households to deal with fuelwood scarcity. The determinants of collecting other biomass energy sources were also examined. The results of the empirical analysis show that rural households in forest-degraded areas respond to fuelwood shortages by increasing their labor input for fuelwood collection. However, for households in high forest cover regions, forest stock and forest access may be more important factors than scarcity of fuelwood in determining household’s labor input to collect it. The study also finds that there is limited evidence of substitution between fuelwood and dung, or fuelwood and crop residue. Therefore, supply-side strategies alone may not be effective in addressing the problem of forest degradation and biodiversity loss. Any policy on natural resource management, especially related to rural energy, should distinguish regions with different levels of forest degradation.
    Keywords: fuelwood, labor allocation, biomass, rural Ethiopia
    JEL: Q12 Q21 Q42
    Date: 2012–01–27
  10. By: Jatta, Sylvester
    Abstract: Abstract Urban agriculture may have an important role to play in addressing food insecurity problems, which are bound to become increasingly vital with the secular trends towards the urbanization of poverty and of population in developing countries. Our understanding of the importance, and food security implications of urban agriculture is however plagued by a lack of high quality, reliable data. While studies based on survey research data do exists for several major cities, much of the evidence is still qualitative if not anecdotal. Using a recently created data set bringing together comparable, nationally representative household survey data for 15 developing or transition countries, this paper analyzes in a comparative international perspective the importance of urban agriculture for the urban poor and food insecure. On the one hand, the potential for urban agriculture to play a substantial role in urban poverty and food insecurity reduction should not be overemphasized, as its share in income and overall agricultural production is often quite limited. On the other hand, though, its role should also not be too easily dismissed, particularly in much of Africa agriculture provides a substantial share of income for the urban poor, and for those groups of households for whom it constitutes an important source of livelihood. We also find fairly consistent evidence of a statistical association between engagement in urban agriculture and dietary adequacy indicators.
    Keywords: Keywords: Urban agriculture; Food security; Nutrition, Household surveys
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2013–04–25
  11. By: Jean-François Bélières (CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD]); Jean-Yves Jamin (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs et Usages - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR90 - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - CEMAGREF-UR IRMO - Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural des Eaux et Forêts); Sidy Mohamed Seck (Leïdi - Girardel - Laboratoire Leïdi - Université Gaston Berger); Jean-Philippe Tonneau (CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD]); Amandine Adamczewski (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs et Usages - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR90 - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - Irstea - AgroParisTech - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes-Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier [CIHEAM-IAMM]); Pierre-Yves Le-Gal (CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD])
    Abstract: Le delta du fleuve Sénégal et l'Office du Niger au Mali disposent encore d'un potentiel important de terres aménageables qui attire des investisseurs prives, notamment depuis 2008. Apres avoir soutenu le développement de l'agriculture familiale pour la mise en valeur des périmètres irrigués, les pouvoirs publics donnent aujourd'hui la priorité à l'installation d'entreprises privées en leur attribuant des terres à aménager. Cet article propose un cadre analytique décrivant les liens entre statut foncier et dynamiques d'aménagement, appliqué aux deux cas étudies. Ceux-ci différent par le rôle joué par l'Etat dans la gestion du foncier, toujours très présent à l'Office du Niger, transféré aux collectivités locales au Sénégal. L'analyse comparée des deux cas montre que le statut foncier, en lien avec les politiques de crédit et les choix techniques réalisés, explique en partie les difficultés de l'agriculture familiale. L'allocation de terres à des compagnies privées est cependant trop récente pour que l'on puisse évaluer sa réelle contribution au développement de l'agriculture irriguée dans ces régions.
    Keywords: Afrique occidentale ; agriculture familiale ; entreprise agricole privée ; gestion foncière ; périmètre irrigué
    Date: 2013–01
  12. By: Olivier Bargain; Olivier Donni; Prudence Kwenda (Aix-Marseille Université and IZA; THEMA, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise; University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa))
    Abstract: Poverty measures in developing countries often ignore the distribution of resources within families and the gains from joint consumption. In this paper, we estimate the allocation process and adult economies of scale in households from Côte d'Ivoire using a collective model of household consumption. Identification relies on the observation of adult-specific goods, as in the Rothbarth method, and a joint estimation on couples and singles. Results show that children's shares are small and decline quickly with household size. It results that child poverty, measured on the basis of individual allocations within families, is much larger than in traditional measures ignoring intrahousehold inequality. Adult poverty is smaller because parents are highly compensated by the scale economies due to joint consumption
    Keywords: Collective Model, Engel Curves, Rothbarth Method, Sharing rule, Scale Economies, Equivalence Scales, Indifference Scales.
    JEL: D11 D12 I31 J12
    Date: 2013

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