nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2011‒08‒02
27 papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. Policy options for improving regional fertilizer markets in West Africa: By Bumb, Balu L.; Johnson, Michael E.; Fuentes, Porfirio A.
  2. How Can Micro and Small Enterprises in Sub-Saharan Africa Become More Productive? The Impacts of Experimental Basic Managerial Training By Yukichi Mano; Alhassan Iddrisu; Yutaka Yoshino; Tetsushi Sonobe
  3. Growth, Colonization, and Institutional Development: In and Out of Africa By Bertocchi, Graziella
  4. Heterogeneous treatment effects of integrated soil fertility management on crop productivity: Evidence from Nigeria By Kato, Edward; Nkonya, Ephraim; Place, Frank M.
  5. Insurance motives to remit: Evidence from a matched sample of Ethiopian internal migrants By de Brauw, Alan; Mueller, Valerie; Woldehanna, Tassew
  6. Who benefits the most from peer effects within ethnic group ? Empirical evidence on the South African Labour Market. By Gaëlle Ferrant; Yannick Bourquin
  7. What are the Enduring Effects of Fertilizer Subsidy Programs on Recipient Farm Households? Evidence from Malawi By Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Jayne, Thomas S.
  8. Managerial ownership and urban water utilities efficiency in Uganda By Mbuvi, Dorcas; Tarsim, Achraf
  9. Estimating yield of food crops grown by smallholder farmers: A review in the Uganda context By Fermont, Anneke; Benson, Todd
  10. Improving Aid Effectiveness in Aid-Dependent Countries : Lessons from Zambia. By Monica Beuran; Gaël Raballand; Julio Revilla
  11. Beyond fatalism: An empirical exploration of self-efficacy and aspirations failure in Ethiopia By Bernard, Tanguy; Dercon, Stefan; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
  12. Civil society, public action and accountability in Africa By Devarajan, Shantayanan; Khemani, Stuti; Walton, Michael
  13. Agricultural extension services and gender equality: An institutional analysis of four districts in Ethiopia By Cohen, Marc J.; Lemma, Mamusha
  14. Agricultural management for climate change adaptation, greenhouse gas mitigation, and agricultural productivity: Insights from Kenya By Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Okoba, Barrack; Koo, Jawoo; Herrero, Mario; Silvestri, Silvia
  15. Trading in turbulent times: Smallholder maize marketing in the southern highlands, Tanzania By Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Lecoutere, Els; D'Exelle, Ben
  16. Adoption of weather index insurance: Learning from willingness to pay among a panel of households in rural Ethiopia By Hill, Ruth Vargas; Hoddinott, John; Kumar, Neha
  17. Gendered impacts of the 2007-08 food price crisis: Evidence using panel data from rural Ethiopia By Kumar, Neha; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  18. Flexible insurance for heterogeneous farmers: Results from a small-scale pilot in Ethiopia By Hill, Ruth Vargas; Robles, Miguel
  19. The Effects of Conflict on Fertility in Rwanda By Kati Schindler; Tilman Brück
  20. Measuring the contribution of extractive industries to local development : the case of oil companies in Nigeria. By Abdou Kâ Diongue; Gaël Giraud; Cécile Renouard
  21. ‘Labour chains’: analysing the role of labour contractors in global production networks By Stephanie Barrientos
  22. Simulating the impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on farm productivity and income: A bioeconomic analysis By Fofana, Ismael
  23. Political economy of the mining sector in Ghana By Ayee, Joseph; Soreide, Tina; Shukla, G. P.; Le, Tuan Minh
  24. Assessment of the Foreign Non-Government Organizations' Role in Sudan By Mohamed, Issam A.W.
  25. Humanitarian Aid, Internal Displacement and Social Impacts in Sudan By Mohamed, Issam A.W.; Osman, Kamal, M.
  26. Education, training and skill development policies in Sudan: Macro-micro overview By Nour, Samia
  27. The importance (impact) of knowledge at the macro-micro levels in Sudan By Nour, Samia

  1. By: Bumb, Balu L.; Johnson, Michael E.; Fuentes, Porfirio A.
    Abstract: A primary motivation for this study is to identify a key set of policy options for improving fertilizer markets in West Africa (among Economic Community of West African States member countries) in ways that ultimately will help improve the efficiency of regional markets and lower the transaction costs and fiscal burdens of increasing fertilizer use in the region. Guided by the 2008 fertilizer crisis, many governments are tempted to impose fertilizer subsidies to reduce fertilizer prices. Yet, in an environment riddled with inefficiencies that contribute to the high costs of using fertilizers, the introduction of subsidies only adds more fiscal burden.To carry out the study, we undertook four country case studies to review the key constraints and bottlenecks along the fertilizer supply chain. The countries were Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal, and the research included field visits in 2009 and 2010. The current paper is based on the country case study results, complemented by a literature review and analysis of secondary data sources.
    Keywords: common fertilizer market, fertilizer use and supply, harmonization of products and regulations, improved technology, policy environment, regional market integration, structure and performance of markets, supply chain,
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Yukichi Mano (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Alhassan Iddrisu (The Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, Ghana); Yutaka Yoshino (The World Bank); Tetsushi Sonobe (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: The vast majority of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in developing countries are located in industrial clusters, and the majority of such clusters have yet to see their growth take off. The performance of MSE clusters is especially low in Sub-Saharan Africa. While existing studies often attribute the poor performance to factors outside firms, problems within firms are seldom scrutinized. In fact, entrepreneurs in these clusters are unfamiliar with standard business practices. Based on a randomized experiment in Ghana, this study demonstrates that basic-level management training improves business practices and performance.
    Keywords: Africa, Ghana, industrial development, survival clusters, management training, randomized experiment
    Date: 2011–07
  3. By: Bertocchi, Graziella (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)
    Abstract: This essay investigates the determinants of the growth performance of Africa. I start by illustrating a broader research agenda which accounts not only for basic economic and demographic factors, but also for the role of history and institutional development. After reporting results from standard growth regressions, I analyze the role of Africa’s peculiar history, which has been marked by its colonization experience. Next I discuss the potential growth impact of state fragility, a concept which reflects multiple facets of the dysfunctions that plague the continent. The last topic I address is the influence, in and out of Africa, of the slave trades. The essay ends with critical conclusions and suggestions for further research.
    Keywords: growth, Africa, history, colonization, institutions, state fragility, slavery
    JEL: O43 N17 H11
    Date: 2011–07
  4. By: Kato, Edward; Nkonya, Ephraim; Place, Frank M.
    Abstract: This study compares the impacts of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) on crop production with use of either mineral fertilizer or organic manure alone. We also investigate the conditions under which .ISFM technology has greater beneficial effects on yields and the factors constraining its uptake. To answer these questions, the study uses a cross-sectional, plot-level data set collected in Nigeria by the International Food Policy Research Institute and the World Bank in 2009. Using both quasi experimental matching estimators and multivariate regression approaches, it finds that overall ISFM has robustly significant positive effects on crop production. The study also finds that ISFM positively affects crop production on plots with customary tenure, sandy soils, and clay soils—conditions that are normally perceived to be less favorable for crop production. The results also show ISFM to be more effective on plots with mild erosion or no erosion. On the constraints, we find that households with limited livestock, equipment, labor, and land are less likely to use ISFM technology, and the extension services currently do not seem to be disseminating ISFM. This evidence provides strong support for efforts to promote ISFM in Nigeria and in other regions with comparable conditions, but adequate attention must be paid to the biophysical conditions of the plots and the household's access to labor endowments, livestock, equipment, and tenure conditions if this technology is to be scaled up and more widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Crop production, Integrated soil fertility management, matching estimators,
    Date: 2011
  5. By: de Brauw, Alan; Mueller, Valerie; Woldehanna, Tassew
    Abstract: Migration and remittances can be used by rural households as a means of insurance, investment, and income augmentation. Ample attention has been given to studying international remittance flows, since for many countries such transfers comprise a significant fraction of income. Remittance flows from internal migrants are relatively understudied, particularly in Africa, where remittance rates are poor. We use a unique matched migrant sample to study what drives the low remittance rates in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics suggest remitters are positively selected in terms of wealth characteristics compared with the average tracked migrant. Limited skill transferability and liquidity largely explain low remittance rates in Ethiopia. Weaker evidence suggests migrants are additionally motivated to remit as a form of self-insurance against own shocks to income and investments towards future inheritable assets.
    Keywords: Insurance, Migration, Remittances,
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Gaëlle Ferrant (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Yannick Bourquin (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence that local social interactions within etnic groups may explain the puzzling variations in labour-market outcomes across individuals. Peer effects work first by creating pressure on labor-market participation, second, by conveying information about job opportunities and by raising wages. These effects differ through a selection effect : gender and ethnic groups who are less integrated in the labour market benefit more from peer effect. Finally, networks exhibit decreasing returns. The problems of endogeneity and simultaneity of local peer effects are addressed by using (i) data aggregated at the province level, (ii) the distribution of the sex of the peers' siblings as an instrumental variable and (iii) a quasi-panel data approach relying on the Hausman-Taylor estimator. The importance of social interactions in the labour market suggests that a social multiplier exists and our estimates show that any labour-market shock is magnified with an elasticity of 0.5.
    Keywords: Peer efects, development economics, labour, South Africa.
    JEL: J15 J16 O18 Z13
    Date: 2011–07
  7. By: Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Jayne, Thomas S.
    Abstract: This article uses panel data from Malawi to measure how receiving subsidized fertilizer in the current year and in previous years affects several different measures of household well-being. Our model accounts for potential endogeneity of subsidized fertilizer due to the non-random way in which it is distributed to recipients. Results indicate that receiving subsidized fertilizer in a given year raises maize and tobacco production as well as the net value of rainy-season crop production in that year. Receipt of subsidized fertilizer over the prior three seasons also has a significant positive effect on current year maize production. However, receipt of subsidized fertilizer in the prior three consecutive years has no discernable effect on the net-value of total crop production in the current year. Moreover, we find no evidence that prior or current receipt of subsidized fertilizer contributes to off-farm or total household income. Lastly, we find no significant evidence that receiving subsidized fertilizer raises farmersâ livestock and durable asset wealth. Potential general equilibrium benefits resulting from the subsidy program cannot be discounted, but the direct comparison of recipient and non-recipient households indicates that enduring effects of the subsidy beyond the year of receipt apply to maize production only and not to overall household income or asset wealth.
    Keywords: fertilizer subsidies, Malawi, Sub-Saharan Africa, endogeneity, panel data, International Development, Political Economy, C23, C26, Q12, Q13, Q18,
    Date: 2011–07
  8. By: Mbuvi, Dorcas (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Tarsim, Achraf (University of Liège)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of the early 1980s neoliberalistic reform strategies in urban water distribution in developing countries. It examines in particular, the technical efficiency of two heterogeneous urban water utility-groups in Uganda. Performance is considered in light of the key urban water sector objectives that are to universally increase qualitative water coverage and enhance utility revenue. Using a two-staged bias-corrected metafrontier based on the data envelopment analysis estimators, the public-private (than the public-public) owned utilities are found less efficient. Efficiency differences between both groups are further linked to utilities scale of operation and market capture capabilities among other factors. The paper urges policy makers to strengthen public sector capabilities as a development policy solution for inclusive quality water services access among other basic public utility services in Uganda, Africa and the developing countries in general.
    Keywords: Efficiency, managerial ownership, non-parametric, Uganda, urban water supply, water supply, water resource management, water utilities
    JEL: C14 H41 L95 Q25
    Date: 2011
  9. By: Fermont, Anneke; Benson, Todd
    Abstract: Precise agricultural statistics are essential for planning and evaluation of agricultural investments to improve the productivity and profitability of smallholder farming systems. However, accurately estimating crop yields is never easy and is even more of a challenge in the context of African farming systems that are characterized by smallholder farms that produce a wide range of diverse crops. With specific reference to yield estimation for food crops under smallholder farming conditions in Uganda, this paper evaluates the various methods that are available to estimate crop production and cropped area in such farming systems. A description and summary tables from a database of estimated crop yields in Uganda that was collated from a large set of field studies over past decades are also provided.
    Keywords: agricultural statistics, crop yield, Data Collection, smallholder farming,
    Date: 2011
  10. By: Monica Beuran (World Bank Country Office in Zambia et Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Gaël Raballand (World Bank Country Office in Zambia); Julio Revilla (World Bank Country Office in Zambia)
    Abstract: Zambia was a middle-income country when it achieved independence from Great Britain in 1964. After decades of international aid Zambia has become a low-income country, and its per capita GDP is only now returning to the levels it had reached over forty years ago. While aid is far from the only variable at work in Zambia's development, its impact has been questionable. This paper examines the issue of aid effectiveness in Zambia, especially in terms of how the incentive structure faced by donors may lead to decreased accountability and inadequate concern for long-term outcomes, rendering aid less beneficial. The paper concludes by proposing a revised approach to the provision and use of international aid in Zambia, as well as in other aid-dependent countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Aid effectiveness, Zambia, donors, projects, aid incentives.
    JEL: F35 O19 O22 O55
    Date: 2011–07
  11. By: Bernard, Tanguy; Dercon, Stefan; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
    Abstract: Fatalism is considered pervasive, especially in many poor communities. In this paper, we explore whether fatalistic beliefs have implications for the attitudes and behavior of poor rural households toward investment in the future. To explore the idea of fatalism, we draw inspiration from theories in psychology focusing on the role of locus of control and self-efficacy and also from the theoretical framework of aspiration failure as developed in recent economic literature. Using survey data from rural Ethiopia, we find evidence of fatalistic beliefs among a substantial group of rural households, as well as indicators consistent with narrow aspirations gap and low self-efficacy. We also find that such beliefs consistently correlate with lower demand for credit, in terms of loan size, repayment horizon, and productive purposes.
    Keywords: aspirations, aspirations failure, aspirations gap, aspirations window, fatalism, self-efficacy,
    Date: 2011
  12. By: Devarajan, Shantayanan; Khemani, Stuti; Walton, Michael
    Abstract: This paper examines the potential role of civil society action in increasing state accountability for development in Sub-Saharan Africa. It further develops the analytical framework of the World Development Report 2004 on accountability relationships, to emphasize the underlying political economy drivers of accountability and implications for how civil society is constituted and functions. It argues on this basis that the most important domain for improving accountability is through the political relations between citizens, civil society, and state leadership. The evidence broadly suggests that when higher-level political leadership provides sufficient or appropriate powers for citizen participation in holding within-state agencies or frontline providers accountable, there is frequently positive impact on outcomes. However, the big question remaining for such types of interventions is how to improve the incentives of higher-level leadership to pursue appropriate policy design and implementation. The paper argues that there is substantial scope for greater efforts in this domain, including through the support of external aid agencies. Such efforts and support should, however, build on existing political and civil society structures (rather than transplanting"best practice"” initiatives from elsewhere), and be structured for careful monitoring and assessment of impact.
    Keywords: Public Sector Corruption&Anticorruption Measures,Parliamentary Government,Social Accountability,Civil Society,ICT Policy and Strategies
    Date: 2011–07–01
  13. By: Cohen, Marc J.; Lemma, Mamusha
    Abstract: Decentralized delivery of public services has been promoted as a means to enhance citizen voice and make service provision more responsive to users. Ethiopia has undertaken two rounds of decentralization, making first the regional states and then the district governments responsible for providing key public services. This paper explores whether decentralization has improved the quality of service delivery and citizen satisfaction with the services provided, focusing on agricultural extension. Specifically, we examine whether services are responsive to the needs and expressed demands of poor farmers, including women farmers. We focus on the institutional arrangements through which agricultural extension services are provided and how these contribute to efficiency, effectiveness, and equity in service delivery.
    Keywords: agricultural extension, Decentralization, Gender, institutional analysis,
    Date: 2011
  14. By: Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Okoba, Barrack; Koo, Jawoo; Herrero, Mario; Silvestri, Silvia
    Abstract: Changes in the agriculture sector are essential to mitigate and adapt to climate change, ensure food security for the growing population, and improve the livelihoods of poor smallholder producers. What agricultural strategies are needed to meet these challenges? To what extent are there synergies among these strategies? This paper examines these issues for smallholder producers in Kenya. Several practices emerge as triple wins in terms of climate adaptation, GHG mitigation, and productivity and profitability. In particular, integrated soil fertility management and improved livestock feeding are shown to provide multiple benefits across the agroecological zones examined. In addition, irrigation and soil and water conservation are also shown to be essential in the arid zone. The results suggest that agricultural investments targeted towards triple-win strategies will have the greatest payoff in terms of increased resilience of farm and pastoralist households to climate change, rural development, and climate change mitigation for generations to come.
    Keywords: Adaptation, agricultural land management, Climate change, livestock feeding, mitigation, Resilience, synergies,
    Date: 2011
  15. By: Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Lecoutere, Els; D'Exelle, Ben
    Abstract: The short-run effects of the 2007/2008 global food crisis on semisubsistence farmers' well-being in low-income countries depends on whether they are net sellers or net buyers of the affected commodities. Realizing that farmers face volatile prices over the course of an agricultural year, we analyze the timing of sales and purchases of maize. In addition, in our analysis, we depart from the oft-made assumption that farmers in rural villages are perfectly integrated within the wider economy. Comparing our results with a static analysis, we find that especially-poor farmers face greater losses from the maize food price crisis than others. The welfare impact is likely to be even more severe than previously thought, as the crisis hurts large households with relatively large numbers of children and women most. We also analyze the effects of factors that are likely to affect potential benefits from intertemporal and spatial price dispersion, such as means of transport, access to price information, and credit.
    Keywords: Food prices, intertemporal arbitrage, Market participation, spatial price dispersion,
    Date: 2011
  16. By: Hill, Ruth Vargas; Hoddinott, John; Kumar, Neha
    Abstract: In this paper we examine which farmers would be early entrants into weather index insurance markets in Ethiopia, were such markets to develop on a large scale. We do this by examining the determinants of willingness to pay for weather insurance among 1,400 Ethiopian households that have been tracked for 15 years as part of the Ethiopia Rural Household Survey. This provides both historical and current information with which to assess the determinants of demand. We find that educated, rich, and proactive individuals were more likely to purchase insurance. Risk aversion was associated with low insurance take-up, suggesting that models of technology adoption can inform the purchase and spread of weather index insurance. We also assess how willingness to pay varied as two key characteristics of the contract were varied and find that basis risk reduced demand for insurance, particularly when the price of the contract was high, and that provision of insurance through groups was preferred by women and individuals with lower levels of education.
    Keywords: index-insurance, Risk, Willingness to pay (WTP),
    Date: 2011
  17. By: Kumar, Neha; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence on the gendered impact of the 2007–08 food price crisis using panel data on 1,400 households from rural Ethiopia that were initially surveyed before the onset of the crisis, in 1994–95, 1997, and 2004, and after food prices spiked, in 2009. It investigates whether female-headed households are more likely to report experiencing a food price shock, and whether female-headed households experiencing a shock are more (or less) likely to adopt certain coping strategies, controlling for individual, household, and community characteristics. Our findings suggest that female-headed households are more vulnerable to food price changes and are more likely to have experienced a food price shock in 2007–08. Because female-headed households are also resource poor and have a larger food gap compared with male-headed households, they cope by cutting back on the number of meals they provide their households during good months and eating less preferred foods in general. Our findings that land—particularly better quality land—has a protective effect against food price shocks also highlight the role of strengthening land rights of the poor, particularly poor women, to enable them to cope better with food price increases.
    Keywords: coping mechanisms, food price crisis, Gender,
    Date: 2011
  18. By: Hill, Ruth Vargas; Robles, Miguel
    Abstract: We analyze the effectiveness of a new approach in providing weather index–based insurance products to low-income populations. The approach is based on the concept of providing multiple weather securities that pay a fixed amount if the event written on the security (that monthly rainfall at a nearby weather station falls below a stated cutoff) comes true. A theoretical model is developed to outline the conditions in which weather securities could outperform crop-specific weather index–based insurance policies. Data collected during both an experimental game and real purchases of such insurance policies among farmers in southern Ethiopia suggest that the securities are well understood and can fit heterogeneous farmer needs. This paper documents (1) heterogeneity of rainfall risk among farmers, (2) the understanding of securities and transmission of information about weather securities among members of endogenously formed risk-sharing groups, and (3) the nature of purchasing decisions and manner in which they are made.
    Keywords: Arrow securities, weather index insurance,
    Date: 2011
  19. By: Kati Schindler; Tilman Brück
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the short and long-term fertility effects of mass violent conflict on different population sub-groups. The authors pool three nationally representative demographic and health surveys from before and after the genocide in Rwanda, identifying conflict exposure of the survivors in multiple ways. The analysis finds a robust effect of genocide on fertility, with a strong replacement effect for lost children. Having lost siblings reduces fertility only in the short term. Most interesting is the continued importance of the institution of marriage in determining fertility and in reducing fertility for the large group of widows in Rwanda.
    Keywords: conflict, demography, fertility, gender, genocide, Rwanda
    JEL: J13 O12
    Date: 2011
  20. By: Abdou Kâ Diongue (Saint-Louis Université - Sénégal); Gaël Giraud (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics et ESCP-Europe); Cécile Renouard (ESSEC - Business School)
    Abstract: Extractive industries face two main challenges in terms of CSR and poverty reduction : 1) recognize that societal activity is part of their core business ; 2) take part in socio-economic projects that contribute to their stakeholders' empowerment and not only to their living conditions. Based on surveys achieved in Nigeria in 2008, the paper presents two societal performance indices meant to be complementary : the Poverty Exit Index (PEI) and the Relational Capability Index (RCI). We show that, while they have fostered the PEI of the local communities, the development projects of the oil companies had a rather negative impact on their RCI. We then identify key variables that can influence positively the RCI and on which a sensible development policy should focus.
    Keywords: Development indices, capability approach, relational capability, development, poverty, impact assessment.
    JEL: C43 D21 F21 L71 O12 O55
    Date: 2011–07
  21. By: Stephanie Barrientos
    Abstract: Third party labour contractors are increasingly prevalent in Global Production Networks (GPNs), and are a potential channel for ‘new forms of slavery’. Our review of case study evidence from South African and UK horticulture suggests unfree labour often emerges off-site through labour intermediaries. We examine analytical approaches to labour in GPNs and value chains. We argue that labour contracting is a logical extension of global outsourcing, helping to offset risk and enhance flexibility. A ‘cascade system’ allows unscrupulous intermediaries to exploit and coerce vulnerable workers. We examine strategies of civil society alliances, and regulatory reform, and argue for extending liability across global boundaries.
    Date: 2011
  22. By: Fofana, Ismael
    Abstract: This study applied at the farm level in Tunisia aims at understanding the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity and income in Africa. Possible future climates are presented through different climate scenarios. The latter combines three levels of increasing temperature (1°centigrade (C), 2°C, and 3°C) with two levels of decreasing precipitation (10 and 20 percent) and a doubling of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere (350 to 700 parts per million). The farming system of production is replicated through a bioeconomic model; that is, one that couples a cropping system model and an economic model run sequentially. The study reveals that land productivity and farm income decline under climate change. Depending on the changes in precipitation, farm productivity falls by 15 to 20 percent and farm income 5 to 20 percent when the temperature increases moderately (1°C). As the climate warms up (2°C and 3°C), farm productivity and income are severely affected, by 35 to 55 percent and 45 to 70 percent, respectively. When simple adaptation strategies based on new management techniques for hard wheat are tested - more irrigation and fertilization - compensations for the negative effects of climate change are found to be worthwhile only for a 1°C increase in temperature. However, the success of adaptation strategies highly depends on the availability of more water and lower additional cost to mobilize them at the farm level.
    Keywords: adaptation strategies, Bioeconomic modeling, Agriculture, Climate change, farm income, productivity,
    Date: 2011
  23. By: Ayee, Joseph; Soreide, Tina; Shukla, G. P.; Le, Tuan Minh
    Abstract: With a focus on the institutional set-up and the political environment as central to understanding and rectifying the poor impact of mining on Ghana's economic development, this paper highlights the vulnerabilities in mining sector governance along the industry value chain. The authors explain why it has been difficult to implement policies that would have improved social welfare. They find that incentive problems in institutions directly or peripherally involved in mining governance are a major factor, as are an excessively centralized policy-making process, a powerful executive president, strong party loyalty, a system of political patronage, lack of transparency, and weak institutional capacity at the political and regulatory levels. The paper argues that the net impact of mining on economic development is likely to be enhanced with appropriate reforms in governance. Most importantly, there should be a greater awareness of incentive problems at the political level and their possible implications for sector performance and the economy at large. The set of checks and balances, as stipulated by the Constitution, have to be reinforced. Furthermore, capacity building at different levels and institutions is needed and should be combined with efforts to enhance incentives for institutional performance.
    Keywords: National Governance,Environmental Economics&Policies,Public Sector Corruption&Anticorruption Measures,Mining&Extractive Industry (Non-Energy),Governance Indicators
    Date: 2011–07–01
  24. By: Mohamed, Issam A.W.
    Abstract: The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan. That was a disputable issue that resulted in a mass expulsion of many in 2009. However¸ there were precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. Reasons are that part of the hypothetical framework here is that their activities in the country are indispensible. The country still faces many humanitarian suffering in most of its regions and international aid is direly required. Thus, it is essential to rectify their modus operandi to be consistent with the culture of the country's people. The conclusions of the paper emphasize that such their humanitarian relief facilities are inadequate and that educational efforts are more needed to support a build-up of human capital. Malnutrition, inadequate homes and sanitation facilities are also common issues that should be within their aid targets. Those are axial factors that should be focused upon specially with escalating economic distress and secession of the Southern Sudan.
    Keywords: Sudan; Internally Displaced People; Refugees Camps; NGOs; Education
    JEL: N3 I3 L31 A10 I2 A13 A12 L3 I23
    Date: 2011
  25. By: Mohamed, Issam A.W.; Osman, Kamal, M.
    Abstract: The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the activities of Save the Children of United Kingdom. Activities of NGOs in Sudan were always a controversial issue that resulted in the expulsion of many in 2009. There were also precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. The case study's activities of the Save the Children efforts in Jebel Aulia Internally Displaced People, specially their efforts in education were investigated. It is concluded that introduce invaluable help in educational field, building classes and facilities. However, they also face financial restraining because governmental efforts in improving facilities are minimized. With the increasing loads of children vying to join education, lack of books and writing materials, impoverished and destitute parents, they cannot pay the small fees required of them. Many children leave education and search for working opportunities to support their families. It is basically required from the government to step in and provide more funds to education. The results data of the Jebel Aulia camp is not different from hundreds spread all over Sudan. The country is faced with increasing numbers of children diverted from education to juvenile works or becoming social outsiders with all the expected consequences.
    Keywords: Sudan; Internal Displacement;Human Capital; Education
    JEL: O15 H5 J24 A2 J2 O1 H75 H7 H56 H52 N4
    Date: 2011
  26. By: Nour, Samia (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and Khartoum University)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the education, training and skill development policies in Sudan using a combination of new secondary and primary data. A novel element in our paper is that we use new primary macro and micro (firm) surveys data to discuss and compare the macro and micro perspectives concerning policies implemented to improve skill upgrading through enhancing the educational system, provision of training and transfer of knowledge. Different from the Sudanese literature, an interesting element in our analysis is that we discuss both the supply and demand sides of educational policies and we provide a more comprehensive analysis by explaining the low commitment to the standardised international adequacy, equity and efficiency criterion related to the supply and demand sides of education and training policies in Sudan. We provide a new contribution and fill important gap in the Sudanese literature by explaining that the regional disparity in the demand for education (share in enrolment in education) is most probably due to economic reasons (per capita income and poverty rate), demographic reasons (share in total population) and other reasons (degree of urbanization) in Sudan. We find that the increase in the incidence of high poverty rate and low per capita income seem to be the most important factor limiting the demand for education, notably, the demand for primary education, especially for females in Sudan. The major policy implication from our findings is that poverty eradication is key for the achievement of universal access to primary education and gender equality and therefore, fulfillment of the second and third United Nations Millennium Development Goals in Sudan by 2015. We recommend further efforts to be made to improve quality, increase firm commitment to the standardised international adequacy, equity and efficiency criterion in the provision of education and training, increase incentives at tertiary and technical education, enhance consistency of education, training and skill development policies and encourage collaboration between public and private sectors.
    Keywords: Education, training, supply, demand, adequacy, efficiency, equity, skill development, Sudan
    JEL: H52 I20 I21 I28 M53 O15
    Date: 2011
  27. By: Nour, Samia (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and Khartoum University)
    Abstract: In this paper we provide a new contribution and fill the gap in the Sudanese literature by investigating the importance (impact) of tacit and codified sources of knowledge at the micro and macro levels in Sudan using new primary data from the firm survey (2010) at the micro level and secondary data at the macro level respectively. Our results at the macro level are consistent with the notion that tacit knowledge and codified sources of knowledge are positively and significantly correlated and complementary with both schooling years and GDP growth (economic growth rate). Moreover, we find that at the macro level codified knowledge and the number of FTER show significant positive correlations with technology (patents). Furthermore, our results at the macro level show significant positive complementary relationships between codified knowledge and the number of FTER, which we interpret as a complementary relationship between tacit knowledge and codified knowledge. Moreover, at the micro (firm) level, we illustrate the importance of tacit knowledge, and we illustrate that tacit knowledge is positively and significantly correlated with technology (expenditures on ICT) and upskilling (expenditures on training), output (defined by total sales value), output diversification, productivity and profit. In addition, we find that at the micro (firm) level, tacit and codified knowledge show positive significant correlations with total capital, and firm size. We explain positive correlations between knowledge and various variables at the micro and macro levels. Therefore, further incentives should be provided to improve tacit and codified sources of knowledge at the macro and micro levels. Our results are consistent with the findings in the knowledge literature, another implication is that since tacit knowledge is often embodied in educated people and so in human capital, the positive impact of tacit knowledge also implies the importance of a good education at the micro and macro levels.
    Keywords: Tacit knowledge, codified knowledge, economic growth, Sudan
    JEL: O10 O11 O12 O30
    Date: 2011

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