nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2010‒08‒14
seven papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. What are the successful strategies for reducing malnutrition among young children in East Africa? By Ibrahim Kasirye
  3. Community based health insurance schemes in Africa: The case of Rwanda By Shimeles, Abebe
  4. In Time of Troubles: Challenges and Prospects in the Middle East and North Africa By Imed Drine
  5. Creating Value Beyond Microfinance Through Entrepreneurship Development in Kenya By Matu, Jeffrey Ben; Kimani, Thomas
  6. Evaluation of The Necessary of Agriculture Public Expenditure for Poverty Reduction and Food Security in Benin By LABINTAN, ADENIYI CONSTANT
  7. Croissance économique, commerce international et emploi décent : cas du Burkina Faso By Adama Zerbo

  1. By: Ibrahim Kasirye (University of Manchester and Economic Policy Research Centre)
    Abstract: We analyzed the role that health programs played in improving the nutritional status of children aged five years and younger in East Africa during a period when health policies aiming to reduce malnutrition were implemented. We used several waves of Demographic and Health Surveys over the 1992–2006 period for Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. Our results show that malnutrition rates fell substantially over the sample period but that some countries then registered reversals. This finding suggests that the implementation of nutrition policies was not consistent. However, the country-level results show that different factors matter in different countries. For example, maternal health is most important in Uganda and Rwanda. Furthermore, different levels of education matter for different countries. For example, in Kenya, only the mother’s post-secondary education is significant, but in other countries, it is important to address generally low education levels to improve child nutritional health. Overall, due to resource constraints, addressing the nutritional health of young children in East Africa will continue to rely on low cost approaches, such as nationwide vaccinations and maternal education, and not on programs like conditional cash transfer schemes, which have proved successful in addressing under-nutrition in wealthy and middle-income countries.
    Keywords: East Africa, Child Malnutrition
    JEL: I12 I18 J13
    Date: 2010–07
  2. By: Zuzana Brixiova
    Abstract: In Africa’s least developed countries (LDCs), escape from poverty and convergence to living standards of more advanced economies depends critically on structural transformation and the emergence of productive entrepreneurship that would accelerate growth and job creation. So far, however, subsistence agriculture has been the main source of employment in these countries, while a dynamic private sector in industry or high value-added services has remained elusive. Utilizing the flow approach to labor markets, this paper complements the empirical literature and numerous surveys on small and medium enterprise (SME) constraints and develops a theoretical framework that examines the main obstacles to entrepreneurship in Africa’s LDCs. The paper posits that given the persistent frictions in product and labor markets as well as skill shortages that characterize these economies, development of productive entrepreneurship cannot be left to markets alone. The policy analysis suggests that the state has an important role to play. Well-targeted government interventions including training of potential entrepreneurs and workers can help establish more modern and highly productive SME clusters that Africa’s LDCs need.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, institutions and policies, Africa, LDCs, search model
    JEL: L26 O1 J64 J68
    Date: 2010–06–01
  3. By: Shimeles, Abebe (Development Research Department African Development Bank)
    Abstract: Community-based health insurance schemes (Mutuelles) in Rwanda are one of the largest experiments in community based risk-sharing mechanisms in Sub-Saharan Africa for health related problems. This study examines the impact of the program on demand for modern health care, mitigation of out-of-pocket catastrophic health expenditure and social inclusiveness based on a nationally representative household survey using traditional regression approach and matching estimator popular in the evaluation literature. Our findings suggest that Mutuelles have been successful in increasing utilization of modern health care services and reducing catastrophic health related expenditure. According to our preferred method, higher utilization of health care services was found among the insured non-poor than insured poor households, with comparable effect in reducing health-related expenditure shocks. This reinforces the inequity already inherent in the Mutuelles system.<p>
    Keywords: demand for health services; catastrophic health expenditure; average treatment effects; endogenous dummy variable; matching estimator
    JEL: I10
    Date: 2010–08–06
  4. By: Imed Drine
    Abstract: The recent crises concerning food and finances highlight the extreme fragility of the MENA countries and question the sustainability of the development processes. The social stress and economic instability caused by these challenges give a good indication of what might be expected in the future. This paper intends to provide a comprehensive analysis for understanding the major challenges faced by the region and the kind of internal impediments that will need to be dealt with in order to achieve a higher level of economic development and more resilience to external shocks.
    Keywords: MENA region, Economic Fragility
    JEL: O1 N2
    Date: 2010–04–01
  5. By: Matu, Jeffrey Ben; Kimani, Thomas
    Abstract: This article looks at current microfinance practices in Kenya and some of the inherent challenges that hinder human development of microfinance clients beyond accessing financial services. As microfinance providers and supporters continue to promote the importance of improving access to financial services amongst micro and small business owners, they will need to augment their microfinance services with basic entrepreneurial training.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Development; Microfinance; Microenterprise; Kenya
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2010–08–02
    Abstract: Benin is predominantly an agricultural country which accounted for 39% of GDP with 70% economically active population in the agricultural sector, that year. Small, independent farmers produce 90% of agricultural output, but only about 17% of the total area is cultivated, much of it in the form of collective farms since 1975. Benin with subtropical climate have enough water resources and land facilities to growth and be one power agriculture country but the sector is plagued may many problem such as lack of infrastructure, poor utilization of rural credit, and inefficient and insufficient use of fertilizer, insecticides, and seeds. Those problems have a big effect on agriculture income and rural household income and the high poverty rate.This is contract between resources potentiality and poor living condition. However the manly source of those problems maybe the lack on public expenditure in this sector. The purpose of this research is to evaluate how the low public expenditure has impact on the agriculture growth and poverty rate. To evaluate that, we first made a theory approach of the impact of agriculture growth and poverty reduction by presentation the model of model elaborate by KAWALI and son in 2006 to evaluate the contribution of public expenditure to achieve MDG b agriculture grows. The application of this model on Benin agriculture show Benin need the annual Agriculture expenditure required for 2004-2015 is 356 Million USD( 8,1% agriculture growth per year) with the conservative scenario beside 301 Million USD (7,1% agriculture growth per year) with optimistic scenario. However the analysis of agriculture public expenditure in Benin is very low( lower than 10% of the GDP) and the public expenditure general is lower than 25% of GDP (lower than 25% that is recommend by best practice) and the high rate is in military not in growthing sector. This lack of sufficient public agriculture expenditure is felt at upriver and backing of the agriculture sector. This is justifying by the agriculture production surplus management problem in this year. This is du to inability of crops stocking, crops conservation system lack and crops distribution system lack due to (infrastructure lack) and insufficient investment lack. The importance of public expenditure is become more and more a crucial problem and news policies should be elaborated and focus in major parties of public expenditure in economic growth sector that is agriculture in Benin because with climate change negative effect the situation will be more degradation and rural poor population will be increase faster.
    Keywords: Keys words: Agriculture- Public Expenditure-Poverty Reduction-Benin
    JEL: Q14 E60
    Date: 2010–10
  7. By: Adama Zerbo (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)
    Abstract: A cause notamment de l’absence de méthodes adéquates permettant de l’examiner profondément, la relation entre la croissance économique et l’emploi décent reste insuffisamment explorée. Pour ce faire, ce papier propose une nouvelle approche d’analyse de ce lien, permettant de décomposer l’élasticité-revenu de l’emploi décent comme étant la moyenne des effets-intensité des facteurs macroéconomiques de la croissance, pondérés par leurs effets-quantité. Cette nouvelle approche permet, entre autres, d’appréhender les contributions des domaines/politiques économiques à l’intensité de la croissance en emploi, ainsi que de cerner les leviers macroéconomiques sur lesquels il conviendrait d’agir afin d’enrichir davantage la croissance économique en emploi décent. L’examen du cas du Burkina Faso à partir de cette nouvelle approche montre, d’une part, qu’aucun facteur de la croissance économique n’a joué véritablement le rôle de moteur de l’emploi décent et, d’autre part, que l’ouverture commerciale de ce pays appauvrit la croissance économique en emploi protégé. In part because of lack of analytical method to examine deeply the relationship between economic growth and decent employment, it is still insufficiently explored. Thus, this paper proposes a new analytical approach of this link, to decompose the elasticity of decent employment in relation of national income, as the average of intensity effects of growth factors, weighted by their quantity effects. This new approach allows assessing contributions of economic policies to growth intensity in employment, identifying macroeconomic levers on which action should be taken so that growth will be increasingly rich in decent work. Examination of the case of Burkina Faso based on this new approach shows that, a hand, there is no growth factor in this country, which is a motor of decent employment and, secondly, the international trade of this country impoverishes growth economic in decent employment. (Full text in french)
    JEL: F16 J23
    Date: 2010–07

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