nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2010‒01‒30
eight papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. Livestock and water interactions in mixed crop-livestock farming systems of Sub-Saharan Africa: interventions for improved productivity By Descheemaeker, Katrien; Amede, Tilahun; Haileslassie, A.
  2. Return Migrants in Western Africa: Characteristics and Labour Market Performance By Philippe De Vreyer; Flore Gubert; Anne-Sophie Robilliard
  3. Do Migrants Improve Governance at Home? Evidence from a Voting Experiment By Catia Batista; Pedro Vicente
  4. Trends in South African Income Distribution and Poverty since the Fall of Apartheid By Murray Leibbrandt; Ingrid Woolard; Arden Finn; Jonathan Argent
  5. Catching-up Trajectories in the Wine Sector: A Comparative Study on Chile, Italy and South Africa By Lucia Cusmano; Andrea Morrison; Roberta Rabellotti
  6. Brainy Africans to Fortress Europe: For Money or Colonial Vestiges? By Amelie F. Constant; Bienvenue N. Tien
  7. Importance of irrigated agriculture to the Ethiopian economy: capturing the direct net benefits of irrigation By Hagos, Fitsum; Makombe, Godswill; Namara, Regassa E.; Awulachew, Seleshi Bekele
  8. Detecting Hidden Violence: The Spatial Distribution of Excess Mortality in Rwanda By Marijke verpoorten

  1. By: Descheemaeker, Katrien; Amede, Tilahun; Haileslassie, A.
    Keywords: Farming systems / Livestock / Water productivity / Water scarcity / Land degradation / Feed production / Fodder / Grazing systems / Animal production / Food production / Policy
    Date: 2009
  2. By: Philippe De Vreyer (Université de Lille II, DIAL); Flore Gubert (DIAL, IRD, Paris); Anne-Sophie Robilliard (DIAL, IRD, Paris)
    Abstract: (english) _________________________________ (français)
    Date: 2009–09
  3. By: Catia Batista (Department of Economics and Institute for International Integration Studies, Trinity College Dublin; IZA); Pedro Vicente (Department of Economics and Institute for International Integration Studies, Trinity College Dublin; CSAE-Oxford; BREAD)
    Abstract: This paper tests the hypothesis that international migration experiences may promote better institutions at home by raising the demand for political accountability. In order to examine this question, we use a simple postcard voting experiment designed to capture the population’s desire for better governance. Using data from a tailored household survey, we examine the determinants of voting behavior in our experiment, and isolate the positive effect of international emigration on the demand for political accountability. We find that this effect can be mainly attributed to the presence of return migrants, particularly to those who emigrated to countries with better governance.
    Keywords: international migration, governance, political accountability, institutions, effects of emigration in origin countries, household survey, Cape Verde, sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F22 O12 O15 O43 P16
    Date: 2009–12
  4. By: Murray Leibbrandt; Ingrid Woolard; Arden Finn; Jonathan Argent
    Abstract: This report presents a detailed analysis of changes in both poverty and inequality since the fall of Apartheid, and the potential drivers of such developments. Use is made of national survey data from 1993, 2000 and 2008. These data show that South Africa’s high aggregate level of income inequality increased between 1993 and 2008. The same is true of inequality within each of South Africa’s four major racial groups. Income poverty has fallen slightly in the aggregate but it persists at acute levels for the African and Coloured racial groups. Poverty in urban areas has increased. There have been continual improvements in non-monetary well-being (for example, access to piped water, electricity and formal housing) over the entire post-Apartheid period up to 2008. From a policy point of view it is important to flag the fact that intra-African inequality and poverty trends increasingly dominate aggregate inequality and poverty in South Africa. Race-based redistribution may become less effective over time relative to policies addressing increasing inequality within each racial group and especially within the African group. Rising inequality within the labourmarket – due both to rising unemployment and rising earnings inequality – lies behind rising levels of aggregate inequality. These labour market trends have prevented the labour market from playing a positive role in poverty alleviation. Social assistance grants (mainly the child support grant, the disability grant and the old-age pension) alter the levels of inequality only marginally but have been crucial in reducing poverty among the poorest households. There are still a large number of families that are ineligible for grants because of the lack of appropriate documents. This suggests that there is an important role for the Department of Home Affairs in easing the process of vital registration.<BR>Ce rapport présente une analyse détaillée de l’évolution de la pauvreté et des inégalités depuis la fin de l’Apartheid et des facteurs susceptibles de l’expliquer. Les comparaisons ont été effectuées sur la base des dernières micro-données comparables sur les ménages de 1993, 2000 et 2008. Ces données montrent que le niveau global des inégalités de revenu de l’Afrique du Sud a continué d’augmenter entre 1993 et 2008. Cette même réalité des inégalités se retrouvent également dans chacun des quatre groupes ethniques d’Afrique du Sud. La pauvreté a légèrement chuté dans sa globalité, mais persiste gravement parmi les groupes ethniques africains et interraciaux. La pauvreté en zone urbaine a augmenté. L’amélioration du bien-être non monétaire (accès à l’eau courante, à l’électricité, à un logement formel etc.) s’est poursuivie jusqu’en 2008. D’un point de vue de politique publique, il est important de signaler que les inégalités et la pauvreté au sein de la population africaine ont et auront de plus en plus un poids prépondérant dans les inégalités et la pauvreté globales du pays. L’augmentation des inégalités au sein du marché du travail – due à la fois à la hausse du chômage et à l’augmentation des inégalités de salaires –, provient de l’augmentation du niveau global des inégalités. Ces tendances ont empêché le marché du travail de jouer son rôle positif en termes de réduction de la pauvreté. Les prestations d’aide sociale (essentiellement l’allocation pour enfant à charge et les pensions d’invalidité et de vieillesse) n’ont qu’une incidence marginale sur les inégalités et la pauvreté. Toutefois, ces transferts réduisent réellement l’écart de pauvreté, en particulier parmi les ménages les plus pauvres. Un grand nombre de familles qui pourraient prétendre aux allocations familiales ne font pas valoir leurs droits parce qu’elles ne disposent pas des pièces justificatives requises. Par conséquent, le ministère des Affaires intérieures (Department of Home Affairs) a un rôle important à jouer en ce sens qu’il peut faciliter le processus d’enregistrement à l’état civil pour que tous les enfants puissent accéder aux prestations d’aide sociale auxquelles ils ont droit.
    JEL: D31 I32 I38
    Date: 2010–01–20
  5. By: Lucia Cusmano (Insubria University, Varese, and KITeS, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy); Andrea Morrison (Uru - Utrecht University and KITeS - Bocconi University, Milan); Roberta Rabellotti (Università del Piemonte Orientale)
    Abstract: From a development perspective an investigation of the changes that have occurred in the wine industry is of particular interest because it provides evidence on how emerging economies have been able to acquire significant shares of the international market in a dynamic sector. Based on novel empirical evidence as well as secondary sources, this paper shows that emerging countries with diverse institutional models and innovation strategies, have been driving the process of technological modernization and product standardization. Newcomers in the wine sector have responded particularly effectively to changes in consumption habits, and in aligning emerging scientific approaches with institutional building efforts and successful marketing strategies.
    Keywords: MCatching up, Wine sector, Sectoral Systems, Chile, South Africa, Italy
    JEL: O13 O30 O38 O57
    Date: 2009–03
  6. By: Amelie F. Constant; Bienvenue N. Tien
    Abstract: Economic reasons along with cultural affinities and the existence of networks have been the main determinants explaining migration flows between home and host countries. This paper reconsiders these approaches combined with the gravity model and empirically tests the hypothesis that ex-colonial links can still play an important role in the emigration decision. We employ a general linear mixed model, and apply it to the case of skilled, educated and talented Africans, who migrate to Fortress Europe over the period of 1990 to 2001. While we find some differences in the exodus of skilled Africans by sub-regions, the magnitude of the colonial vestige in Africa is a significant determinant of emigration flows. Overall, Portugal is preferred to the UK which is preferred more than Belgium, Germany and Italy. Brainy Africans are, however, indifferent between the UK, France and Spain as a destination country. Established immigrant networks and higher standards of living with job opportunities in the host country are also very important drivers of the emigration of brainy Africans to the European ex-colonial powers.
    Keywords: Skilled migration, Africa, colonization, networks, economic reasons
    JEL: F22 O15 J61
    Date: 2009
  7. By: Hagos, Fitsum; Makombe, Godswill; Namara, Regassa E.; Awulachew, Seleshi Bekele
    Keywords: Irrigated farming / National income / Economic growth / Crops / Prices / Sensitivity analysis / Crop management / Irrigation schemes / Ethiopia
    Date: 2009
  8. By: Marijke verpoorten
    Abstract: Rwanda experienced several forms of internal violence, including civil war,genocide, reprisal killings and (counter-)insurgency. While these events all occurred in 1990-1998, their geographic location within Rwanda differred, with the genocide especially severe in the South of the country, the civil war and reprisal killings mostly taking place in the North and East, and the (counter-)insurgency concentrated in the Northwest. In order to assess the relative impact of the different forms of violence, this article derives a detailed spatial pattern of excess mortality from the population census. In line with previous evidence on the death toll of armed conflict in Rwanda, we find significant high-high excess mortality clusters in the southern province of Butare, in and around Kigali City, and in the eastern province Kibungo. Furthermore, we present the first quantitative evidence to date of high excess mortality in the northwestern porvince Gisenyi, indicating that the 1995-1998 (counter-)insurgency inflicted a much higher death toll on the population than presently acknowledged by the Rwandan government, the UN and large western donors.
    Keywords: armed conflict, genocide, excess mortality, Rwanda
    JEL: J11 J15 Y80
    Date: 2010

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