nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2009‒12‒05
four papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. Understanding the Southern African Anomaly: Poverty, endemic Disease, and HIV By Larry Sawers; Eileen Stillwaggon
  2. Union Monétaire en Afrique de l'Ouest: Quelles Réponses à l'Hétérogénéité des Chocs ? By Sampawende Jules TAPSOBA
  3. Improving Food Security in Africa: Highlights of 25 Years of Research, Capacity-Building, and Outreach. By MSU Food Security Group
  4. Choc pétrolier et performance des marchés du mil au Niger By Claudio ARAUJO; Catherine ARAUJO BONJEAN; Johny EGG

  1. By: Larry Sawers; Eileen Stillwaggon
    Abstract: Background: Adult HIV prevalence in southern Africa is many times greater than prevalence in other low- and middle-income countries. Previous studies argue that the intensity of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa results from regional characteristics, such as apartheid labour regulations and mineral wealth, which contributed to circular migration patterns and highly skewed income distribution, both thought to promote risky sexual behaviour. This study emphasizes the importance of common infectious and parasitic diseases that increase the likelihood of HIV transmission by making HIVinfected persons more contagious and by making uninfected persons more vulnerable.
    Keywords: HIV/AIDS, migration, southern Africa, tropical disease, poverty
    Date: 2009–07
  2. By: Sampawende Jules TAPSOBA (Ministère de l'Economie et des Finances [France])
    Abstract: Since the independences, having a single currency is an official policy objective of West African countries. In April 2000, West African decisions-makers decided to accelerate the integration of the region by creating a second monetary zone in addition to the WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union). On economic grounds, several academics argue that a monetary union in West Africa would be costly because of the predominance of asymmetric shocks. When shocks are divergent, a common monetary policy is inappropriate and ineffective. This conclusion is however static and does not include structural changes that happen after the creation of a monetary union. The launch of monetary union helps countries to cope with asymmetric shocks. This article proposes the analysis of mechanisms that a West African Monetary Union could develop in order to alleviate the costs of asymmetric shocks. The results suggest that a West African currency could be OCA (Optimal Currency Areas) compliant by the intensification of regional trade and the development of regional credit markets which facilitate the risk-sharing strategies.
    Keywords: Asymmetric shocks, International Risk-sharing, Optimal Currency Area, Trade Integration, West Africa
    Date: 2009
  3. By: MSU Food Security Group
    Abstract: Decades of research have led to substantially improved understanding of the nature of food insecurity. A combination of economic growth and targeted programs resulted in a steady fall (until the food crisis of 2007/08) in the percentage of the worldâs population suffering from undernutrition (from 20% in 1990/92 to 16% in 2006). Yet over a billion people still face both chronic and/or transitory food insecurity due to long-standing problems of inadequate income, lowproductivity in agricultural production and marketing, and related problems of poor health and absence of clean water. Assuring adequate food security for such a large share of the worldâs population is increasingly challenging due to continuing resource degradation driven by a combination of population pressure and outdated agricultural practices, poorly functioning input markets, rapid urbanization, increased concerns about food safety, and climate change. This document contains an overview of the past 25 years of research, capacity-building, and outreach by MSUâs Food Security Group. The paper describes key elements of the FSG approach and draws lessons regarding the value of that model. Insights gained from research and outreach and their value in addressing the major current challenges facing food and agricultural systems in Africa are summarized in FSG (2009).
    Keywords: Africa, Food Security, research, capacity building, outreach, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Land Economics/Use, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, q10, q18, q12, q13,
    Date: 2009–10
  4. By: Claudio ARAUJO (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Développement International); Catherine ARAUJO BONJEAN (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Développement International); Johny EGG
    Abstract: L'objectif de cet article est de tester l'impact du récent choc pétrolier sur la performance des marchés du mil au Niger. Dans ce pays où les coûts de transport représentent l'essentiel des coûts de commercialisation des céréales, on peut craindre que l'augmentation du coût des carburants entraîne un ralentissement des échanges, l'activité commerciale devenant moins rentable, et aggrave les tensions sur les marchés locaux de céréales. L'impact de la hausse des prix du pétrole sur les marchés nigériens du mil est testé à partir de l'estimation de la relation de long terme qui lie les prix du mil sur différentes places lorsque que les marchés sont arbitrés. Les résultats obtenus sur un panel de 66 paires de marchés, couvrant la période allant de janvier 1990 à octobre 2008, mettent en évidence des effets de seuil dans la relation d'équilibre. En période de bas prix des carburants, les écarts de prix entre marchés se resserrent. Inversement, lorsque le prix de l'essence atteint des niveaux élevés, les commerçants ajustent leur marge à la hausse. Ces résultats reflètent une bonne intégration des marchés et une efficacité accrue des opérations d'arbitrage sur la fin de période pendant laquelle la hausse du prix du carburant est transmise de façon atténuée.
    Keywords: afrique, choc petrolier, coûts de transaction, marches cerealiers, panel à effet de seuil
    Date: 2008

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