nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2008‒04‒29
twenty-two papers chosen by
Suzanne McCoskey
George Washington University

  1. Inflation-Targeting in Sub-Saharan Africa: Why Now? Why at All? By Terry McKinley
  2. The Changing Nature of Employment and the Reform of Labor and Social Security Legislation in Post-Apartheid South Africa By Makino, Kumiko
  3. The South African informal sector (1997 – 2006) By Hassan Essop; Derek Yu
  4. Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi By Tom Bundervoet; Philip Verwimp; Richard Akresh
  6. Perceived Financial Risk and Divergence in the Economic Growth of Sub-Saharan African Countries. By Bichaka Fayissa; Christian Nsiah; Prathibha V. Joshi
  7. Household Structures and Savings: Evidence from Household Surveys By Juan R. de Laiglesia; Christian Morrison
  8. Civil Wars beyond their Borders: The Human Capital and Health Consequences of Hosting Refugees By Baez, Javier E.
  9. Regional Integration and FDI in Emerging Markets By Julia Kubny; Florian Mölders; Peter Nunnenkamp
  10. Optimal Sequencing of Antiretroviral Drug Cocktails under Uncertainty and Irreversibility By Mintewab Bezabih; Michael Stolpe
  11. Family policies : what does the standard endogenous fertility model tell us ? By Thomas Baudin
  12. Aid, Catastrophes and the Samaritan's Dilemma By Paul A. Raschky; Manijeh Schwindt
  13. Limited Insurance Within the Household: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya By Robinson, Jonathan
  14. The impact of Economic policies On the investment climate in Arab Countries By Alrubaie, falah.K.Ali
  15. Links and Architecture in Village Networks By Krishnan, Pramila; Sciubba, Emanuela
  16. National Cultures and Soccer Violence By Edward Miguel; Sebastián M. Saiegh; Shanker Satyanath
  17. Trade Policies and Export growth - employment and poverty impact in Tanzania By Levin, Jörgen; Olin, Mikael
  18. Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction under Mubarak's Program By Yamada, Toshikazu
  19. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Ghanaian Firms By Joshua Abor
  20. Analysis of Human Development Indicators In Libya By Alrubaie, Falah
  21. Manufacturing Sector and the process of Structural transformation in Libyan Economy By Alrubaie, falah.K.Ali
  22. An Analysis to human development indicators in the Arab States By Alrubaie, falah.K.Ali

  1. By: Terry McKinley (International Poverty Centre)
    Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, Inflation
    Date: 2008–04
  2. By: Makino, Kumiko
    Abstract: This paper tries to understand the current status of South African labor market, which is changing in contradictory directions, i.e. a strengthening of the rights and protection of workers at the same time as the flexibilization of employment, in the context of the characteristics of labor and social security legislation in South Africa, as well as the nature of labor and social security reforms after democratization. We put emphasis on the corporatist nature of labor policy-making as the factor influencing the course of reforms; it is argued that the apparently contradictive changes can be explained consistently by the corporatist labor policy-making process which has been practiced notwithstanding the problem of representativeness.
    Keywords: South Africa, Labor market, Social security, Corporatism, Employment
    JEL: I38 J21 J30 J50 J65
    Date: 2008–03
  3. By: Hassan Essop (Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University); Derek Yu (Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: According to the 2006 September Labour Force Survey, approximately 22% of the employed (excluding domestic workers and agricultural employment) are engaged in informal sector activities as their main work to sustain themselves and their dependents. Given the large size of the informal sector in relation to the formal sector, it is imperative to understand the dynamics and trends within the informal sector. This paper provides a detailed quantitative descriptive analysis of the South African informal sector between 1997 and 2006 using the October Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey data, adding to the work on informal markets done by authors such as Devey, Skinner & Valodia (2003, 2006a, 2006b), Muller (2003) and Muller & Posel (2004). Such an analysis could not only enhance the informal sector literature currently available, but also increase the depth of analysis available to policy makers.
    Keywords: South Africa, Household survey, Labour market trends, informal sector
    JEL: J00
    Date: 2008
  4. By: Tom Bundervoet (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Belgium); Philip Verwimp (German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)); Richard Akresh (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
    Abstract: We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi’s civil war on children’s health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war’s timing across provinces and the exposure of children’s birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for province of residence, birth cohort, individual and household characteristics, and province-specific time trends, we find an additional month of war exposure decreases children’s height for age z-scores by 0.047 standard deviations compared to non-exposed children. The effect is robust to specifications exploiting alternative sources of exogenous variation.
    Keywords: Child health, economic shocks, stunting, Africa, civil war
    JEL: I12 J13 O12
    Date: 2008
  5. By: David Mather (Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University); Cynthia Donovan (Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University)
    Abstract: Using a three-year panel of 4,058 Mozambican households surveyed in 2002 and 2005, we measure how PA adult mortality due to illness affects rural household size and number of adult members, crop and non-farm income, total household income, and asset levels. First difference estimations indicate that the effects of PA mortality vary considerably by the gender and household position of the deceased individual as well as by region. Results show that significant reductions in household size, income, and assets are more likely found in the event of a PA male death rather than a PA female death. In the North/Center of the country, a PA male head death can result in loss of 25% of crop income; in the South, such a death results in an average loss of 88% of non-farm income. In spite of these significant reductions in income, we do not find significant reductions in total income per AE among affected households, and they are not more likely to have ex post income/AE below the expenditurebased poverty line relative to non-affected households. However, due to significant asset losses and lower ex post landholding/AE relative to the non-affected population, affected households may be increasingly vulnerable to adverse income and assets shocks, especially those households that have suffered a PA male death.
    Keywords: food security, food policy, Mozambique, hiv, aids
    JEL: Q18
  6. By: Bichaka Fayissa; Christian Nsiah; Prathibha V. Joshi
    Abstract: Since the 1970’s, countries of the Sub-Saharan African region have experienced slow economic growth and development in comparison to other regions of the world. This paper studies the role of perceived financial risk in explaining the divergence of economic growth among Sub-Saharan African countries by employing regression techniques on panel data for the period of 1984 to 2000. Our findings suggest that higher ratings of a country’s investment environment (used as a proxy for reduced perceived financial risk) tend to make the flow of external funds more accessible to African countries and spur their economic growth.
    Keywords: Economic growth, financial risk, foreign direct investment, human capital, physical capital, political rights, openness, panel data.
    JEL: C33 F20 G32 O40 O5
    Date: 2008–04
  7. By: Juan R. de Laiglesia; Christian Morrison
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between household structures, the institutions that shape them and physical and human capital accumulation using household and individual data from China, Indonesia, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. Household structures differ greatly across countries and are very diverse within countries. In the two African countries studied a large share of the population live in extended households and/or polygamous ones. Such household structures are the exception or even absent in the Asian cases, where nuclear monogamous households prevail. This paper finds that polygamy is negatively related to capital accumulation. Wealth per capita is significantly lower in polygamous households even after controlling for income, age and literacy of the household head. A first analysis of the possible channels suggests that the larger size of polygamous households plays an important role. A similar result is found for education: enrolment rates are never higher but frequently lower in these households. The diversity across countries demonstrates that polygamy has very different meanings across societies... <BR>Ce document examine les relations entre les structures des ménages, les institutions qui les façonnent et l’accumulation de capital physique et humain, en utilisant des données par ménage et par individu en provenance de Chine, d’Indonésie, de Côte-d’Ivoire et du Ghana. Les structures des ménages varient beaucoup d’un pays à l’autre et sont très diverses à l’intérieur même des pays. Dans les deux pays africains étudiés une partie importante de la population vit dans des ménages étendus et/ou polygames. De telles structures des ménages sont l’exception ou même absentes dans les pays d’Asie où le ménage nucléaire et monogame prédomine. Ce document constate que la polygamie a une relation négative avec le processus d’accumulation de capital. La richesse par tête est significativement inférieure dans les ménages polygames même après avoir contrôlé par le revenu, l’âge et l’éducation du chef de ménage. Une première analyse des mécanismes possibles qui pourraient expliquer ces résultats suggère que la taille plus grande des ménages polygames joue un rôle important. On trouve un résultat semblable pour l’éducation : les taux de scolarisation ne sont jamais supérieurs mais souvent moins élevés dans ces ménages. La diversité selon les pays prouve que la polygamie a des significations très différentes selon les sociétés...
    Keywords: Africa, Afrique
    JEL: D12 J12 O12 O16 Z10
    Date: 2008–01
  8. By: Baez, Javier E. (Syracuse University)
    Abstract: Between 1993 and 1994, extremist militia groups carried out the extermination of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus in the genocides of Burundi and Rwanda. Nearly one million people were killed and thousands were forcibly uprooted from their homes. Over the course of a few months, Kagera – a region in northwestern Tanzania – received more than 500,000 refugees from these wars. This region is home to a series of geographic natural barriers, which resulted in variation in refugee intensity. I exploit this variation to investigate the short and long run causal effects of hosting refugees on the outcomes of local children. Reduced-form estimates offer evidence of adverse impacts almost 1.5 years after the shock: a worsening of children’s anthropometrics of 0.3 standard deviations, an increase of 15 to 20 percentage points in the incidence of infectious diseases and an increase of roughly 7 percentage points in mortality for children under five. I also exploit intra- and inter-cohort variation and find that childhood exposure to this massive arrival of refugees reduced height in early adulthood by 1.8 cm (1.2%), schooling by 0.2 years (7.1%) and literacy by 7 percentage points (8.6%). Designs using the distance from the village to the border with Rwanda as an alternative instrumental strategy for refugee intensity support the findings. The estimates are robust across a variety of samples, specifications and estimation methods and provide evidence of a previously undocumented indirect effect of civil wars on the well-being of children and subsequent economic growth in refugee-hosting communities.
    Keywords: civil conflicts, refugees, children, human capital, health, Africa
    JEL: O10 O12 O15
    Date: 2008–04
  9. By: Julia Kubny; Florian Mölders; Peter Nunnenkamp
    Abstract: Regional integration is often considered a means to improve member countries’ attractiveness to foreign direct investment (FDI). But regional integration agreements (RIAs) as well as FDI are too diverse to allow for generalized verdicts. Our case studies on Mercosur in Latin America, ASEAN and SAARC in Asia, and SADC in sub-Saharan Africa caution against high expectations in several respects. First, country-specific factors were often more important as a stimulus to FDI than regional integration per se. Second, member countries are unlikely to equally share RIA-induced FDI inflows, even though the larger and richer members are not necessarily the winners taking all. Third, the regional heavyweights Brazil, China, India, and the Rep. of South Africa have played a minor role so far in fostering effective regional integration through outward FDI
    Keywords: foreign direct investment, regional integration, Mercosur, ASEAN, SAARC, SADC
    JEL: F15 F23
    Date: 2008–04
  10. By: Mintewab Bezabih; Michael Stolpe
    Abstract: This paper develops a real options approach to the optimal sequencing of antiretroviral drug cocktails for HIV/AIDS patients in resource-poor settings. The analysis focuses on the implications of endogenous resistance mutations in the virus that reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of individual drugs within a cocktail when lack of laboratory equipment prevents these from being identified. Using a model with two drug cocktails, we show that the first-line therapy should be introduced later than in the case without resistance mutations and that the second-line therapy should be introduced earlier. We go on to discuss implications for comparative cost-effectiveness analyses.
    Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Real option theory, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Combination therapy, Developing countries
    JEL: D81 H51 I12
    Date: 2007–10
  11. By: Thomas Baudin (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, Ecole d'économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I)
    Abstract: There exists a large consensus in the economic literature and in the economic institutions about the legitimacy of policies subsidizing education. This legitimacy lies in the fact that education is a source of positive externalities. In a standard framework of endogenous fertility, the present paper shows that this result is still valid but that subsidizing education also requires to tax births. Indeed, education subsidies decrease the net cost of children such that parents can exhibit a too high fertility rate. Furthemore, when health is introduced as another source of externalities, the model shows that health expenditures have not always to be subsidized. Indeed, the taxation of births plays the role of an indirect subsidy on health expenditures because it decreases the cost of health relatively to the cost of the quantity of children. When the externalities on education are very high relatively to the positive externalities on health, the indirect subsidy on health can exceed the subsidy that is really needed. Then health expenditures have to be taxed. This results are discussed in the light of family policies implemented in China and Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Fertility, education, health, family policy, taxation, mortality.
    Date: 2008–04
  12. By: Paul A. Raschky; Manijeh Schwindt
    Abstract: This paper discusses the impact of expected foreign aid in case of catastrophic events on the level of mitigative activities in aid-receiving countries. The theoretical model shows that the anticipation of foreign aid partly crowds out preventive collective action. The crowding-out effect can result in both a lower probability of surviving an disaster and an increase in an event's proportion. In order to test the theoretical propositions we analyse the effect of foreign aid dependence on a) ex-ante risk-management activity proxied by the death toll from 317 major earthquakes occurring worldwide between 1980 and 2002 and b) the likelihood of cholera epidemics between 1980 and 2001. Our estimates suggest that foreign aid in previous years is crowding out ex-ante risk-management activities in recipient countries. The paper concludes with propositions on the deployment of foreign aid.
    Keywords: Foreign Aid, Samaritan's Dilemma, Catastrophes
    JEL: O17 O19 Q54
  13. By: Robinson, Jonathan
    Abstract: This paper presents results from a randomized field experiment to test for the importance of limited commitment (due to incomplete contract enforceability) in explaining intra-household risk sharing arrangements in Kenya. The experiment followed 142 daily income earners and their spouses for 8 weeks. Every week, each individual had a 50% chance of receiving a 150 Kenyan shilling (US $2) income shock (equivalent to about 1.5 days' income for men and 1 week's income for women). This paper has 2 main results. First, since the experimental payments are random, they allow for a direct test of allocative Pareto efficiency. I reject efficiency, as male private goods expenditures are sensitive to the receipt of the payment. Second, the experiment varied the level of intra-household correlation in the experimental payments between couples. I find that women send bigger transfers to their husbands when shocks are independent or negatively correlated, a result consistent with the presence of limited commitment. I find no difference in transfers for men, likely because the shocks were too small to cause the limited commitment constraint to bind for them.
    JEL: O12
    Date: 2008–04–17
  14. By: Alrubaie, falah.K.Ali
    Abstract: FDI now plays a complementary and dynamic role to local investments in Developing Countries . besides the financial capital it brings , more importantly it introduces technology, that sets off a diffusion effect with far more impact. Its entry enhances productivity and , by setting new standards , catalysis increased competitiveness in the domestic economy .Linkages trough relationship of suppliers and distributors generate a multiplier effect . The impact is greater when the domestic economy itself is developing . Therefore along with policies for attracting FDI there must be an equally supportive environment for development of the domestic private sector .This paper look on the right approaches to attract FDI to Arab Countries trough analysis the Economic factors that affect on the investment climate , specially, financial , monetary and external balance policies adopted by Arab Countries in order to using these factors in account the Composite investment climate Index of economic policies and to built statistics model to study the relation ship between FDI AND Economic policies . finally presented some suggestions in order to improving the investment climate in Arab Countries
    Keywords: The impact of Economic policies On the investment climate in Arab Countries
    JEL: E61
    Date: 2004–06–04
  15. By: Krishnan, Pramila; Sciubba, Emanuela
    Abstract: In this paper we test the implications of a model of network formation on data from rural Ethiopia. In contrast to the current literature, we demonstrate the critical role of both number of links and architecture in determining the impact of social networks on outcomes. Social capital matters, but its impact differs by the architecture of the network to which one belongs.
    Keywords: Endogenous network formation; rural institutions; social networks
    JEL: D85 O12 O17 Z13
    Date: 2008–04
  16. By: Edward Miguel; Sebastián M. Saiegh; Shanker Satyanath
    Abstract: Can some acts of violence be explained by a society's "culture"? Scholars have found it hard to empirically disentangle the effects of culture, legal institutions, and poverty in driving violence. We address this problem by exploiting a natural experiment offered by the presence of thousands of international soccer (football) players in the European professional leagues. We find a strong relationship between the history of civil conflict in a player's home country and his propensity to behave violently on the soccer field, as measured by yellow and red cards. This link is robust to region fixed effects, country characteristics (e.g., rule of law, per capita income), player characteristics (e.g., age, field position, quality), outliers, and team fixed effects. Reinforcing our claim that we isolate cultures of violence rather than simple rule-breaking or something else entirely, there is no meaningful correlation between a player's home country civil war history and soccer performance measures not closely related to violent conduct.
    JEL: K0 O57 Z1
    Date: 2008–04
  17. By: Levin, Jörgen (Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics); Olin, Mikael (Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics)
    Abstract: This report focuses on trade and exchange rate policies in Tanzania. The composition of Tanzanian exports has changed dramatically since early 2000. In examining the determinants of trade with a particular focus on Tanzanian exports, we found that changes in the real exchange rate did not have a significant impact on exports. However, supply-side effects and trading partner economic performance are more important, as is the distance to market (or transport cost). The second part of this report discusses the impact of trade reforms on employment and poverty in the Tanzanian economy. In the long-term scenarios poorer households seem to gain more from trade liberalisation compared to the richer household groups. In the short-term, trade liberalisation would be beneficial to female workers and poor households, if labour is able to move between sectors. If wages are rigid, trade liberalisation will lead to unemployment and wages for casual labour will drop significantly. A nominal wage increase during liberalisation can have a significant impact on unemployment, driving casual workers’ wages down further. If the trade union adjusts worker premiums during trade reform, this would not only save some of the jobs of members, but also benefit non-unionised workers in other sectors as well. The alternative option of a reduction in export taxes would have a stronger impact on export supply, poor households would gain more than with liberalisation..
    Keywords: Trade liberalisation; labour markets; poverty; Tanzania
    JEL: C68 F01 F16
    Date: 2008–04–22
  18. By: Yamada, Toshikazu
    Abstract: This paper describes and analyzes the major features of economic development and poverty reduction in Egypt during its transition to a market Economy. It focuses on the changes in the situation of poverty and economic policies pursued as remedies by the government of Egypt and the ruling NDP. Sustainable development and poverty reduction is the core of the President Mubarak’s election campaign for his fifth term for the presidency. We attempt to explain the obstacles encountered by the Egyptian economy in terms of adjustments and general economic arguments on poverty. Finally, we refer to the necessity for enhanced accountability in the society to accomplish the goal.
    Keywords: Egypt, Transition, Poverty Reduction, Mubarak's Program, EHDR, Sustainable development
    JEL: I32 O11 P26
    Date: 2008–03
  19. By: Joshua Abor
    Abstract: This study compares the capital structures of publicly quoted firms, large unquoted firms, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana. Using a panel regression model, the paper also examines the determinants of capital structure decisions among the three sample groups. The results show that quoted and large unquoted firms exhibit significantly higher debt ratios than do SMEs. The results did not show significant difference between the capital structures of publicly quoted firms and large unquoted firms. The results reveal that short-term debt constitutes a relatively high proportion of total debt of all the sample groups. The regression results indicate that age of the firm,size of the firm, asset structure, profitability, risk and managerial ownership are important in influencing the capital structure decisions of Ghanaian firms. For the SME sample, it was found that factors such as the gender of the entrepreneur, export status, industry,location of the firm and form of business are also important in explaining the capitalstructure choice. The study provides useful recommendations for policy direction and management of these firms.
    Date: 2008–03
  20. By: Alrubaie, Falah
    Abstract: Analysis of Human Development Indicators In Libya Alrubaie.Falah.K.Ali - Economics-faculty of Economics–derna-Omar Almukhtar university- Libya Summary This study aimed to diagnose the nature of the challenges facing human development in Libya in the future, in light of the trend towards privatization and economic reform and retreat of the role of the state and public sector, and the economic recession that dominated the Libyan economy since the mid-nineties yet, and how to maintain the gains made by, and address the shortage of quality aspects of the recipe given sustainability, after it became successful achievements in the areas of health and education are threatened with exposure to significant setback.The only way to meet those challenges is to intensify efforts to raise the level of the three dimensions of human development: the formation of human capacities, human use of this capacity, raising the level of human well-being and the granting of these indicators priority in the allocations of investment, and to keep raising the living standard of citizens while working to develop and improve constantly, and keenness to achieve justice in the distribution of incomes, and an evaluation and follow-up continuing to achieve human development consistent with the rates of international and national particularities and the advancement of the education sector in the context of economic restructuring to give priority to the aspects of quality and focus on the quality of education its various dimensions, and keep up with economic and social developments and changes and build modern health policy with the task of accurate diagnosis of the problems of the health sector, and the diagnosis of pros and cons current horizontal expansion in health services, policy and the reality of the pharmaceutical and medical supply and the proposed alternatives, and the reality of policy alternatives and spending in the health sector, and interest in the maintenance of the gains distributive and social justice in the provision of housing for all social groups, particularly those on low income, together with adherence to appropriate staffing resources, the need to develop a national strategy for the advancement of the status of women Jamahiriya, containing among other proposals, foremost of the establishment of social programmes to reduce the negative effects of economic restructuring programmes on the status of women, creation of a national fund for the advancement of women in order to improve their quality of life and ensure that aspects of the economic and social security through expansion of programmes investment loans and loan subsidies and housing programs marriage and custody and training programmes and rehabilitation
    Keywords: Analysis of Human Development Indicators In Libya
    JEL: O15
    Date: 2005–02–05
  21. By: Alrubaie, falah.K.Ali
    Abstract: " Manufacturing Sector and the process of Structural transformation in Libyan Economy" Dr.falah.K.Ali Alrubaie Economics-faculty of Economics –derna -Omar Almukhtar university Abstract This study aims to diagnosis the role of Manufacturing sector in the process of structural transformation in Libyan Economy and determination the nature of transformation during 1970-2000 by following:- 1-Diagnosis the main structural relationship among the Economical activities and determination the nature of transformation which has take part during the study period, in order to determine whether this transformation causes a state of structural imbalance or it harmonizes with the aim of structural balance which declaration in economic plans 2- Diagnosis the structural transformation in manufacturing sector by study the relations between branches, activities and patterns, small and large scale, import substitution and encourage exports activities. 3:- study the reflection of structural transformation in manufacturing sector on the directions of the main structural relationship among economical activities of Libyan Economy
    Keywords: arabic
    JEL: L60
    Date: 2004
  22. By: Alrubaie, falah.K.Ali
    Abstract: The challenge facing the Arab states at the present time, is how to preserve the gains they achieved in the sphere of human development and giving it a sustainable, by addressing the deficiencies and problems experienced by many of those indicators, and the future development will depend in the Arab world on how to tackle the obstacles that face human development in each country individually, and therefore the Arab states to exert more effort to achieve reforms in the economic sphere through diversification of the structure of the national economy to ensure sustainability in the development process and social importance of controlling the phenomenon of the rise in the rates of population growth and reform imbalance in the situation of women and paying attention to health and the eradication of communicable diseases and in the cultural field need to work on building a modern Arab culture and subjective, can be a centre of the development process, that occupies the site of this new culture heart engine that revolve around economic development processes and human, cultural, scientific, technological and creative, through raising the level of investment in human capital, building the knowledge and skill estimated and intensify education programmes and training and qualification of the workforce, and encourage spending on research and development and interest in the culture of individuals and encourage them to use advanced technical knowledge in the sector and ensure the right to education for all and promote freedom in the cultural and educational institutions and consolidate the foundations of democratic dialogue, in order to raise the efficiency of work and renovation, development and the eradication of illiteracy, because of illiteracy is deterrent to development and social progress and stress-year basic education for all, expansion and diversity in educational institutions, secondary and tertiary and higher education to meet the demands of the labour market and focus on the principle of lifelong education and the preparation of the self-learning which helps rights to adapt to the reality where the player not only continued, or future, only entrench equality and appreciation to all branches of human knowledge and experience, whether pursuant mentally, in practice, organizational, technical, productive, educational or aesthetic
    Keywords: An Analysis to human development indicators in the Arab States
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2006–04–05

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