nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2007‒04‒09
nineteen papers chosen by
Suzanne McCoskey
Foreign Service Institute, US Department of State

  1. Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement: An Assessment of Experience in Africa and Elements of Good Donor Practice. By David Tschirley
  2. Trends in Poverty and Inequality in Seven African Countries By Frikkie Booysen; Ronelle Burger; Gideon Du Rand; Michael von Maltitz; Servaas Van der Berg
  3. Textiles Protection and Poverty in South Africa/La protection du secteur des textiles et la pauvreté en Afrique du Sud: une analyse en équilibre général calculable dynamique micro-simulé By Ramos Mabugu; Margaret Chitiga
  4. Humanitarian Relief and Civil Conflict By Max Blouin; Stéphane Pallage
  5. Post-conflict aid, real exchange rate adjustment, and catch-up growth By Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus; Kaltani, Linda; Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.
  7. Valuing Animal Genetic Resources: A Choice Modeling Application to Indigenous Cattle in Kenya By Eric Ruto; Guy Garrod; Riccardo Scarpa
  8. Food Subsidies and Poverty in Egypt: Analysis of Program Reform using Stochastic Dominance By Mathieu Audet; Dorothée Boccanfuso; Paul Makdissi
  9. The welfare effects of a large depreciation : the case of Egypt, 2000-05 By Kraay, Aart
  10. The impact of OECD Agricultural trade liberalization on poverty in Uganda By Charles Augustine Abuka; Michael Atingi-Ego; Jacob Opolot; Marian Mraz
  11. Shifts in Non-Income Welfare in South Africa: 1993-2004 By Haroon Bhorat; Carlene van der Westhuizen; Pranushka Naidoo
  12. Multinationals in their communities: A social capital approach to corporate citizenship projects By Ian Jones; Michael Pollitt; David Bek
  13. Poverty, Inequality and Stochastic Dominance, Theory and Practice: The Case of Burkina Faso By Abdelkrim Araar
  14. Factors affecting Income Strategies among households in Tanzanian Coastal Villages: Implications for Development-conservation initiatives By Jennifer K. Sesabo; Richard S.J. Tol
  15. Institutions and Infrastructure Investment in Low and Middle-Income Countries: The Case of Mobile Communications By Federica Maiorano; Jon Stern
  16. North-South Regionalism By Claude Grasland; Pierre Beckouche
  17. A kleptocrat ' s survival guide : autocratic longevity in the face of civil conflict By Milante, Gary
  18. Does Terror Threaten Human Rights? Evidence from Panel Data By Axel Dreher; Martin Gassebner; Lars-H. R. Siemers
  19. Perceived Attitude and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) establishment: Why households’ characteristics matters in Coastal resources conservation initiatives in Tanzania By Jennifer K. Sesabo; Hartmut Lang; Richard S.J. Tol

  1. By: David Tschirley (Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University)
    Abstract: This report discusses the potential for procurement of food aid in local/regional markets to improve the effectiveness of response to food emergency victims. The paper examines the relevance of local/regional procurement (LRP) to donors and the rationale for using it, reviews LRP’s efficiency relative to in-kind food aid and to local prices in the markets in which it occurs (focusing on Africa), proposes a classification of risks involved in LRP, discusses a range of potential LRP modalities, and closes by proposing a framework of guiding principles,information systems, and operational procedures for responsible and effective LRP.
    Keywords: Africa, food security, food policy, food aid
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Frikkie Booysen; Ronelle Burger; Gideon Du Rand; Michael von Maltitz; Servaas Van der Berg
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyse trends in poverty and inequality in seven African countries using an asset index constructed from comparable, nationally representative surveys using multiple correspondence analysis. Improvements in the asset index are largely driven by progress in the accumulation of private assets, while access to public services has deteriorated. Continued efforts at the expansion of access to public services such as waterborne sanitation and piped water, particularly in rural areas, are thus required. Overall poverty has declined in five of the seven countries. The trends in urban and rural poverty for the most part mirror these trends in overall poverty. Five of the seven countries experienced an improvement in overall inequality. Only in Zambia has overall inequality increased. Experiences in regards to trends in urban and rural inequality are mixed. These results, however, should be interpreted with caution, given the various conceptual and methodological limitations of the asset index approach to poverty analysis.
    Keywords: Poverty, inequality, asset index, multiple correspondence analysis, Africa
    JEL: I32 I31 D31 I38 O55
    Date: 2007
  3. By: Ramos Mabugu; Margaret Chitiga
    Abstract: There is an important debate going on in South Africa on whether to apply safeguard trade barriers to protect textiles. This presents an interesting case of how a country might use safeguard trade barriers in order to better achieve a domestic policy objective. Much of the current discourse on textiles protection focuses on static effects of protection. The aim of this paper is to take this discussion a step further by introducing the effect of textiles protection on poverty and its dynamics. To assess these effects of protection, a sequential dynamic computable general equilibrium model linked to a nationally representative household survey of 2000 is used. The simulation involves a doubling of the import tariffs on textiles. The textile sector is, obviously, the biggest winner, followed by the service sector, which sells more than half of its production as inputs for the textile sector. All other sectors experience falling output with the worst affected being the export-oriented sectors. Because the protected sectors are relatively more labour intensive, wages increase in both the short and long terms. Capital returns are sector specific in the short run and go up markedly for textiles and services but decline for all the other sectors. Overall, welfare falls both in the short and long term as the rise in factor prices is completely offset by the increase in consumer prices. The proportion of people living below US$2 per day increases marginally in the short run following increased textiles protection because of the observed increase in consumer price index that is higher than the increase in consumption for most households. Unskilled Indians are the only group to experience a reduction in poverty and welfare increases in the short run. The average poverty gap and the squared poverty gap also follow the same pattern as poverty headcount because most households are being pushed into poverty./L'Afrique du Sud représente un cas idéal pour évaluer la pertinence de mettre en place des barrières commerciales de sauvegarde pour protéger le secteur des textiles. Cette étude évalue les impacts de la protection tarifaire du secteur sud-africain des textiles au moyen d'un modèle d'équilibre général calculable dynamique, de nature séquentielle, lié aux micro données provenant de l'enquête nationale auprès des ménages de 2000. Les résultats de la simulation démontrent que le secteur des textiles est le plus grand bénéficiaire de cette mesure, suivi du secteur des services. Tous les autres secteurs enregistrent une décroissance de leur production et, parmi eux, ceux à vocation exportatrice s'avèrent être les plus sévèrement touchés. Les salaires augmentent à court et à long terme. Le capital étant immobile à court terme entre les secteurs, son rendement augmente sensiblement dans les activités de production des textiles et des services, mais diminue dans les autres activités. Le bien-être diminue à la fois à court et à long terme alors que la pauvreté augmente de façon significative à court terme.
    Keywords: Sequential dynamic CGE, microsimulation, textiles, protection, poverty, welfare, growth, South Africa/Équilibre général calculable, MEGC dynamique séquentiel, micro simulation, textiles, protection, pauvreté, bien-être, croissance, Afrique du Sud
    JEL: D58 E27 F17 I32 O15 O55
    Date: 2006
  4. By: Max Blouin; Stéphane Pallage
    Abstract: We examine the effects of famine relief efforts (food aid) in regions undergoing civil war. In our model, warlords seize a fraction of all aid entering the region. How much they loot affects their choice of army size; therefore the manner in which aid is delivered influences warfare. We identify a delivery plan for aid which minimizes total recruitment in equilibrium.
    Keywords: Humanitarian aid, food aid, civil war, warlords, famine
    JEL: O10 F35 D74
    Date: 2007
  5. By: Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus; Kaltani, Linda; Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.
    Abstract: Post-conflict countries receive substantial aid f lows after the start of peace. While post-conflict countries ' capacity to absorb aid (that is, the quality of their policies and institutions) is built up only gradually after the onset of peace, the evidence suggests that aid tends to peak immediately after peace is attained and decline thereafter. Aid composition broadly reflects post-conflict priorities, with large parts of aid financing social expenditure and infrastructure investment. Aid has significant short-term effects on the real exchange rate (RER), as inferred from the behavior of RER in the world. While moderate RER overvaluation is observed in post-conflicts, it cannot be traced down to the aid flows. The empirical evidence on world growth reveals new findings about the pattern of catch-up growth during post-conflicts and the role of key growth determinants on post-conflict growth. Aid is an important determinant of growth, both generally and more strongly during post-conflict periods. Because RER misalignment reduces growth, RER overvaluation during post-conflicts reduces catch-up growth. Aid and RER overvaluation combined also lower growth. But the negative growth effect of RER overvaluation declines with financial development.
    Keywords: Social Conflict and Violence,Economic Theory & Research,Development Economics & Aid Effectiveness,Post Conflict Reintegration,Pro-Poor Growth and Inequality
    Date: 2007–04–01
  6. By: Richard S.J. Tol (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin); Kristie L. Ebi; Gary W. Yohe
    Abstract: We study the effects of development and climate change on infectious disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Infant mortality and infectious disease are close related, but there are better data for the former. In an international cross-section, per capita income, literacy, and absolute poverty significantly affect infant mortality. We use scenarios of these three determinants, and of climate change to project the future incidence of malaria, assuming it to change proportionally to infant mortality. Malaria deaths will first increase, because of population growth and climate change, but then fall, because of development. This pattern is robust to the choice of scenario, parameters, and starting conditions; and it holds for diarrhoea, schistosomiasis, and dengue fever as well. However, the time and level of the mortality peak is very sensitive to assumptions. Climate change is important in the medium term, but dominated in the long term by development. As climate can only be changed with a substantial delay, development is the preferred strategy to reduced infectious diseases, even if that is exacerbated by climate change.
    Keywords: Development, infectious disease, climate change, Sub-Saharan Africa, malaria
    JEL: I12 O13 Q54
    Date: 2006–06
  7. By: Eric Ruto (University of Newcastle); Guy Garrod (University of Newcastle); Riccardo Scarpa (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: In an effort to improve productivity and profits many farmers have replaced traditional livestock breeds with higher yielding alternatives. While such changes may bring about short-term economic gains, the loss of traditional livestock breeds could result in the loss of an important genetic resource as a variety of important genetic traits adapted to local conditions gradually become less common in the population. This is a particular problem in Africa, where livestock make a substantial contribution to human livelihoods. Using the example of cattle in Kenya’s pastoral livestock markets this study uses a choice experiment approach to investigate buyers’ preferences for indigenous breeds such as the Maasai Zebu. The analysis employs a latent class approach to characterize heterogeneity in valuations both within and across respondents buying cattle for breeding, slaughter or resale. The results show that there are at least three classes of buyers with distinct preferences for cattle traits and that most buyers favor exotic rather than indigenous breeds. Such preferences have implications for the conservation of indigenous cattle in Kenya and in other developing countries and suggest that some form of intervention may be required to ensure the preservation of this important animal genetic resource.
    Keywords: animal genetic resources; economic valuation; choice experiments; latent class models;indigenous livestock; Maasai Zebu cattle
    JEL: N5 O13 C25 Q26
    Date: 2007–03–23
  8. By: Mathieu Audet; Dorothée Boccanfuso; Paul Makdissi
    Abstract: Throughout this article, we utilize consumption dominance curves, a tool developed by Makdissi and Wodon (2002) to analyze the impacts on poverty brought on by changes in the food subsidy system in Egypt. The Egypt Integrated Household Survey (EIHS) of 1997 allows us to conclude that changes brought to these subsidies have not always worked towards alleviating poverty.
    Keywords: Subsidy, Marginal Tax Reforms, Egypt
    JEL: D12 D63 I21 I32
    Date: 2007
  9. By: Kraay, Aart
    Abstract: The Egyptian pound depreciated sharply between 2000 and 2005, declining by 26 percent in nominal trade-weighted terms. The author investigates the effect of the large depreciation on household welfare operating through exchange rate-induced changes in consumer prices. He estimates exchange rate pass-through regressions using disaggregated monthly consumer price indices to isolate the impact of the exchange rate changes on consumer prices. Then he uses household-level data from the 2000 and 2005 Egyptian household surveys to quantify the welfare effects of these consumer price changes at the household level. The average welfare loss due to exchange rate-induced price increases was equivalent to 7.4 percent of initial expenditure. Stronger estimated exchange rate pass-through for food items imply that this effect disproportionately affected poorer households.
    Keywords: Markets and Market Access,Access to Markets,Economic Theory & Research,Poverty Lines,Commodities
    Date: 2007–04–01
  10. By: Charles Augustine Abuka; Michael Atingi-Ego; Jacob Opolot; Marian Mraz
    Abstract: The paper examines the projected impacts of agricultural trade liberalisation by OECD countries on poverty in Uganda and compares them to the poverty impacts of all merchandise trade liberalisation. The overall impact of OECD agricultural trade liberalisation on welfare in Uganda from this simulation is positive in contrast to previous research, nevertheless, the poor appear to be made worse off. The liberalisation of all OECD merchandise trade including non-agricultural commodities reduces welfare for all deciles irrespective of household poverty status, residence and region. The results for global partial merchandise trade liberalisation are similar to those for total trade liberalisation with an overall welfare decline of about 0.5 percent. More specifically, even the modest welfare gains for producers from increased prices seem to be offset by welfare losses from increases in consumer goods. Overall, because of the large subsistence agricultural sector, households tend to experience little or no change in total welfare arising from agricultural price changes. Increases in market value of their agricultural based output tend to be offset by changes in the opportunity cost of their subsistence consumption of the bulk of that output.
    Keywords: Microsimulation, agricultural trade liberalization, Uganda , poverty
    Date: 2007–04–04
  11. By: Haroon Bhorat; Carlene van der Westhuizen; Pranushka Naidoo (Development Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of the shifts in non-income welfare that have occurred over the period 1993 to 2004. This analysis serves as a complement to existing research which has focused on shifts in income poverty and inequality in the post-apartheid period. In addition, the study is one of only a few that provides a complete overview of the first decade of democracy by means of the comprehensive time period it covers. We use a technique called factor analysis to construct an asset index as an alternative, non-income based, measure of welfare. Variables reflecting household access to a range of services and assets are used in the construction of our asset index. An initial descriptive overview of the shifts in access to services and assets provides strong evidence that government asset and service delivery between 1993 and 2004 was pro-poor in nature. When standard measures of poverty are applied to our asset index values, statistically significant decreases in the headcount asset poverty rates between 1993 and 2004 across a range of covariates are found. A series of inequality measures are also applied to our asset index. The estimates show that across all covariates, asset inequality decreased between 1993 and 2004. Inequality decompositions indicate that within-group inequality has increased in importance in determining aggregate inequality.
    Keywords: Non-income welfare, access to services, asset index, headcount asset poverty rates
    JEL: A1
    Date: 2006–05
  12. By: Ian Jones; Michael Pollitt; David Bek
    Abstract: The objectives of this research are to provide new ways of thinking about and measuring the extent and effectiveness of multinational company efforts to contribute to society via their corporate citizenship (CC) (or corporate social responsibility - CSR) programmes. It uses as its method of analysis the emerging literature relating to the theory and measurement of social capital. The paper summarises the findings of a forthcoming book (from Palgrave, 2007). We begin by discussing the concept of corporate citizenship in the context of the multinational. We go on to introduce the concept of social capital employed in the study. Next we summarise our case study evidence with cases from Anglo American and Diageo. Following this, we review our statistical and econometric analysis which maps the community engagements of UK multinationals in South Africa, US multinationals in Mexico and EU multinationals in Poland. We demonstrate the usefulness for analysis of social capital thinking in this context and make suggestions for future work.
    Keywords: Social capital; Corporate citizenship; Corporate Social Responsibility; Multinational companies.
    JEL: M14 Z13
    Date: 2006–12
  13. By: Abdelkrim Araar
    Abstract: In this paper we provide a set of rules that can be used to check poverty or inequality dominance using discrete data. Existing theoretical rules assume continuity in incomes or in percentiles of the population. In reality, with the usual household surveys, this continuity does not exist. However, such a discontinuity can be exploited to test for stochastic dominance. This paper also proposes stochastic dominance conditions that check for the statistical robustness of the inferred rankings. The methodology of this paper is illustrated using Burkina Faso's household surveys for the years of 1994 and 1998.
    Keywords: Stochastic Dominance, Poverty, Inequality
    JEL: D63 D64
    Date: 2007
  14. By: Jennifer K. Sesabo; Richard S.J. Tol (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin)
    Abstract: This paper applies Tobit models to investigate factors that explain households’ decision-making on whether or not to participate in various activities, using household data collected from two Tanzanian coastal villages (Mlingotini and Nyamanzi). The results indicate that households’ decision to participate in various activities is significantly influenced by asset endowments, households’ structure, local institutions, and location- specific characteristics of both villages. In addition, these results reveal that fishing assets entitlements and access influence are the main determinants for variation in total household’s income. Taken together, the findings show existence of households’ heterogeneity in making choices among different activities, which should be considered by policymakers when designing conservation-development policies in coastal areas.
    Keywords: coastal resources, households, assets, activities, Tanzania, conservation-development policies
    JEL: Q22
    Date: 2005–07
  15. By: Federica Maiorano (Department of Economics, City University, London); Jon Stern (Department of Economics, City University, London)
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between regulation and performance in the mobile telecommunications sector. The analysis takes account of the economic impact of telecommunications infrastructure on aggregate income and of the role of country institutions in promoting economic growth. More specifically, we try to separate the impact of regulation from the potential indirect effects due to country institutions. We address these questions by estimating a system of equations for a panel of 30 low and middle-income countries over the 1990 - 2004 period. In summary, the evidence we present confirms the positive effect of regulatory institutions on telecommunications penetration and also highlights the contribution of a more widespread mobile telecommunications infrastructure to higher levels of GDP per capita.
    Keywords: Telecommunications, Regulation, Institutions, Growth
    JEL: L51 L96 O43
    Date: 2007–03–14
  16. By: Claude Grasland (GC - Géographie-cités - [CNRS : UMR8504] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I][Université Denis Diderot - Paris VII] - [Ecole Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines], RIATE - Réseau interdisciplinaire pour l'aménagement du territoire européen - [CNRS : UMS2414][DATAR] - [Université Denis Diderot - Paris VII]); Pierre Beckouche (LADYSS - Laboratoire dynamiques sociales et recomposition des espaces - [CNRS : UMR7533] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I][Université Paris VIII Vincennes-Saint Denis][Université de Paris X - Nanterre])
    Abstract: Planning and other territorial policies within Europe are more and more dependant upon its relations with the rest of the world. The growing international flows (migrants, trade, investments, polluting agents) interact with the European territories; moreover, the vision the Europeans have of their place in the world, has a strong impact on the EU's policies. Many political decisions apparently related to purely “internal affairs”, are in fact based on a wider conception of the world. <br /><br />Three dominant representations of Europe in the world are currently available: (i) the “continent” view, which describes territories in the traditional – but still active – shape of continents or civilisation areas; (ii) the “centre-periphery” view, which stresses the dissymmetry of the North-South relations; (iii) the “archipelago” view, based on the networking organisation of space, which highlights the remote connections of territories. Each of these views provides partial evidence of reality. They are not really contradictory, but they have to be distinguished because their territorial impacts are quite different, and because they give rise to different European territorial policies. <br /><br />(1) The “continent” view of Europe entails several assets: Central and Eastern European member states would benefit from subsidies and western private foreign direct investments; Trans-European Networks would be implemented at a large European scale, which would be favourable to all the European territory; the German territory would become the genuine centre of Europe. On the other hand, this view drives to territorial shortcomings: a “Nimby” interpretation of the European Neighbourhood Policy would have negative impacts on the peripheral parts of the EU's space; obstructing population exchanges with the neighbourhood would hamper the European economy and territory as a whole, and increase its ageing. <br />(2) The “centre-periphery” view would quite deeply change the European geography due to a greater Euro-Mediterranean economic integration, despite being asymmetrical. More than the eastern peripheral parts of the Union, its southern ones would benefit from this change. In the short run, the European economy would partly catch up with its Asian and American counterparts, although not on the high-tech basis of the Lisbon Strategy. Nevertheless, the relocation of the environmental burden (Dirty-Difficult-Dangerous activities) to the southern shore could only be a short-term solution. A prominent policy of migration control would diminish the rise of the European Mediterranean rim, and would not reduce the brain drain. <br />(3) The “archipelago” view would drive to many territorial advantages: most of the major European cities would become highly internationalized metropolitan areas; western countries, which benefit from such metropolises, would experience a particularly fast economic growth. On the other hand, territorial disparities in Europe would increase, within Western Europe and within the new member states – which would rapidly loose their competitive advantage due to the rise of salaries and costs in their capital cities. The destabilisation would be dramatic in the Mediterranean neighbouring countries, due to a tough 2010 liberalisation of trade, namely in agriculture (rural emigration toward the large cities' suburbs and toward Europe). <br /><br />The paper shows a desirable and feasible vision of Europe that would imply the territorial assets of the three former views without their main shortcomings. This vision is based on the idea that Europe and its neighbours represent one major world region, according to the North-South regionalism that occurs between the US and Mexico, or between Japan and its emerging peripheries. Here, the European Neighbourhood Policy becomes the key policy to complement the Lisbon Strategy and to enhance all European territorial policies. Completing a regulated North-South regionalism in the European region, would imply two main innovations: <br /><br />a) along with the four freedoms (goods, services, capital, people), four principles of common action should be added: solidarity with the southern shore of the Mediterranean (and over a longer time span with Sub-Saharan Africa); creation of meshing networks over the greater regional territory (banking services connecting the two shores, integrated transport and electricity networks, compatible patterns of higher education's degrees in order to promote mobility); economic complementary (a better sharing of the value chain in agriculture, manufacturing and services); common policies for regional public goods (air and sea pollution namely). <br />b) The tools of the European Regional Policy have to be widely used by such an ENP, in order to develop efficient territories, to tackle the many social issues in the South which cannot be met without taking the local territories into account, to enhance local actors as a key way for democratisation, and in order to coordinate the various European actions in this neighbourhood through an Euromed Spatial Development Perspective.
    Keywords: Europe, neighbourhood policy, north-south, regionalisation, prospective, spatial planning, Mediterranean, Africa
    Date: 2007–03–30
  17. By: Milante, Gary
    Abstract: Autocratic regimes are quite often short-lived kleptocracies formed and maintained through force and used to appropriate wealth from subjects. Some of these autocracies collapse after only a year or two of plundering while others manage to survive for 15 or 20 years. This paper asks why some autocratic regimes survive while others fail. A database of political regimes from 1960 to 2003 is introduced and accompanies the paper in an appendix. A model of political survival suggests that autocrats e xchange constraints on their executive power for their continued survival. The relationship between payouts from successful rebellion and ease of rebellion determines how willing kleptocrats are to extend the political franchise and protect their power. Results show that extremely oppressive regimes and great expenditures on security are likely to accompany the most difficult environments for defense of the state. The model is used to identify the costs of pervasive political conflict and to decompose the " civil peace dividend " enjoyed by inclusive democracies that do not suffer from the malady of kleptocratic rule. Finally, the model suggests that slow democratization pushed by the autocratic elites to guarantee their survival, accompanied by stable development, may be the best path toward a democratic future for many fragile states.
    Keywords: Economic Theory & Research,Education and Society,Social Conflict and Violence,Services & Transfers to Poor,Post Conflict Reintegration
    Date: 2007–04–01
  18. By: Axel Dreher (Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich); Martin Gassebner (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich); Lars-H. R. Siemers (RWI Essen)
    Abstract: The paper presents a political economy model linking terror and governments’ respect for human rights. Using panel data for 111 countries over the period 1973-2002, we then empirically analyze whether and to what extent terror affects human rights – measured by three indices covering a wide variety of human rights aspects. According to our results, terror substantially diminishes governments’ respect for basic human rights such as absence of extrajudicial killings, political imprisonment, and torture. To some extent, civil rights are also restricted as a consequence of terrorism, while we find no effect of terrorism on empowerment rights.
    Keywords: Terrorism, Human Rights, Civil Liberties, Suicide Attacks
    JEL: D74 F52 P48
    Date: 2007–02
  19. By: Jennifer K. Sesabo; Hartmut Lang; Richard S.J. Tol (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin)
    Abstract: In recent years, conservation initiatives through Marine Protected Area (MPAs) in many developing countries have been molded to win the support and participation of local communities. Increasingly, studies have been undertaken to enhance the understandings of the characteristics of rural communities. In the case of Tanzania, the level of compliance with marine and coastal resources management is constrained by lack of knowledge regarding coastal communities’ behavior and characteristics. Indeed, it is hypothesized that the knowledge about rural coastal communities will lead to an increase in compliance of conservation initiatives. Therefore, this paper provides an empirical assessment of households’ perceived attitudes towards proposed MPA establishment in two Tanzanian coastal villages (Mlingotini and Nyamanzi) and their vicinity. Based on survey data, the results indicate that 50.23% of households had favorable attitudes towards the introduction of MPA, out of which 34% belonged to the poor class. Moreover, a majority of households indicate that there is a need of public participation in planning and implementation of MPA. Subsequently, Probit regression, which featured in the analysis revealed that perceived costs and benefits accruing from MPAs establishment, awareness of MPAs objectives and rules that govern the use of marine and coastal resources, dependency on marine and coastal-based activities, perceived fishery conditions, wealth and location variables have a significant influence on perceived attitudes towards establishing of new MPA. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that conservation initiatives through the establishment of MPAs may be more beneficial and more effective when policy makers understand the characteristics and behavior of coastal communities. In addition, conservation initiatives should be based on the consensus building and participation of all stakeholders.
    Keywords: marine protection areas, fisheries, Tanzania
    JEL: Q22
    Date: 2006–03

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