nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2007‒03‒03
twelve papers chosen by
Suzanne McCoskey
Foreign Service Institute, US Department of State

  1. Why Not 'Front-Load' ODA for HIV/AIDS? By John Serieux; Terry McKinley
  2. Are Improving Terms of Trade Helping Reduce Poverty in Africa? By Andrew Mold
  3. Capital adjustment patterns and uncertainty in African manufacturing By Admasu Shiferaw
  4. Three Models of Social Protection By Alejandro Grinspun
  5. Commercialisation des Céréales et Sécurité Alimentaire au Mali (International Trade and the Production of Cereals in Mali) By Marthe Diallo; Kadiatou Dème; Niama Nango Dembélé; Abdramane Traoré; John Staatz
  6. The Gender Pay Gap over Women's Working Lifetime By Hyun H. Son; Nanak Kakwani
  7. Old-Age Poverty and Social Pensions in Kenya By Hyun H. Son; Nanak Kakwani
  8. Perspectives d'évolution des marchés céréaliers pour la campagne de commercialisation 2005/2006. By Salifou B. Diarra; Niama Nango Dembélé
  9. Adult mortality and children ' s transition into marriage By Beegle, Kathleen; Krutikova, Sofya
  10. SMES and enjoying Economic Human Rights in Egypt By ALASRAG, HUSSIEN
  11. Risk Pooling through Transfers in Rural Ethiopia By Lei Pan
  12. Les alternatives hydrauliques et l'urbanisation au Maghreb By René Arrus

  1. By: John Serieux (Dept. of Economics, University of Manitoba); Terry McKinley (International Poverty Centre)
    Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Official Development Assistance, Poverty, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2007–02
  2. By: Andrew Mold (African Centre for Gender and Social Development, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa - ECA)
    Keywords: Africa, Poverty, Trade, Terms of Trade
    Date: 2006–11
  3. By: Admasu Shiferaw
    Abstract: Judging by the provisions of its investment code and the apparent stability of the macro-economy, Ethiopia seems to offer a favourable investment climate for the private sector. However, Ethiopian manufacturing has experienced a declining rate of investment since the mid 1990s. Like other Sub-Saharan African countries, more than half of manufacturing firms in Ethiopia have zero investment episodes; episodes that have become more persistent over time. This contrasts badly with high average profit rates in African manufacturing relative to average profit rates in OECD countries. Rather than being smooth and continuous, firm level investment in Africa is less frequent and lumpy. While this pattern of capital adjustment is not unique to Africa, the discontinuity and lumpiness is starker than what is observed in developed countries. The evidence in this paper suggests that such discontinuity and the lacklustre investment performance have more to do with uncertainty and irreversibility. The paper shows that uncertainty, proxied by the volatility of profits, undermines mainly the likelihood rather than the rate of investment. However, the possibility to reverse investment decisions, captured by the scope of the second hand market for machinery, significantly increases the rate of investment.
    Keywords: investment, irreversibility, uncertainty, African manufacturing, Ethiopia
    Date: 2007
  4. By: Alejandro Grinspun (International Poverty Centre)
    Keywords: Social protection, Poverty, Bolivia, Mexico, India, South Africa
    Date: 2005–10
  5. By: Marthe Diallo; Kadiatou Dème; Niama Nango Dembélé (Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University); Abdramane Traoré; John Staatz
    Abstract: The liberalization of foreign trade has positively impacted the production of cereals in Mali. The increase in the production of cereals is due to both price increases and the effectiveness of the marketing system. The liberalization made Mali a cereal exporter l in contrast with its former status ten years ago, that of a cereals importer Mali supplies its neighboring countries such as Mauritania, Niger, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Cote d’Ivoire with coarse grains. However, subsidies, rapid urbanization, and changes in the food habits of the urban population threaten Mali’s capacity to remain an exporter. To remain an exporter, Mali should, in the long term, process coarse grains into products conforming to the expectations and food habits of the urban population. Food security remains a major challenge in Mali in spite of the country’s food self sufficiency.
    Keywords: food security, food policy, Mali
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2006
  6. By: Hyun H. Son (International Poverty Centre); Nanak Kakwani (International Poverty Centre)
    Keywords: Gender pay gap, Unpaid work, Poverty, Gender discrimination, Brazil, South Africa, Thailand
    Date: 2006–06
  7. By: Hyun H. Son (International Poverty Centre); Nanak Kakwani (International Poverty Centre)
    Keywords: Poverty, Kenya, Social Pensions, Elderly Population
    Date: 2006–11
  8. By: Salifou B. Diarra; Niama Nango Dembélé (Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University)
    Keywords: food security, food policy, Mali
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2006
  9. By: Beegle, Kathleen; Krutikova, Sofya
    Abstract: Adult mortality due to HIV/AIDS and other diseases is posited to affect children through a number of pathways. On top of health and education outcomes, adult mortality can have significant effects on children by influencing demographic outcomes including the timing of marriage. The authors examine marriage outcomes for a sample of children interviewed in Tanzania in the early 1990s and re-interviewed in 2004. They find that while girls who became paternal orphans married at significantly younger ages, orphanhood had little effect on boys. On the other hand, non-parental deaths in the household affect the timing of marriage for boys
    Keywords: Population Policies,Youth and Governance,Population & Development,Adolescent Health,Street Children
    Date: 2007–02–01
    Abstract: Economic Human Rights are considered one of the basic human rights. In spite of many reforms have been taken to increase enjoying Economic Human Rights in Egypt, It still compare poorly with other developing countries. Nearly 43.9% of the Egypt’s population lives on less than $2a day, and 16.7% barely survive on less than $1 a day. Improving the climate for SMES in Egypt is essential to enjoying economic human rights and to provide jobs and opportunities for young people and to build a more inclusive, balanced, and peaceful community . The purpose of this paper is to review and analysis the role of SMES on enjoying Economic Human Rights in Egypt
    JEL: I38 I3
    Date: 2007–02–26
  11. By: Lei Pan (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: It is often assumed that transfers received from governments, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), friends and relatives help rural households to pool risk. In this paper I investigate two functions of transfers in Ethiopia: risk pooling and income redistribution. Unlike most of the literature this paper investigates not only whether but also how much risk pooling is achieved. I find evidence that transfers from governments/NGOs play a role in insuring covariant income shocks, (weak) evidence that transfers from friends/relatives insure idiosyncratic income shocks and evidence that transfers target the poor households. However, the contributions of transfers to risk pooling and income redistribution are economically very limited.
    Keywords: Risk; Insurance; Income redistribution
    JEL: I38 O17
    Date: 2007–01–26
  12. By: René Arrus (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Economie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - [CNRS : FRE2664] - [Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II])
    Abstract: Comment aborder la question du développement hydraulique durable urbain au Maghreb ? Plusieurs éléments interviennent. En premier, la croissance rapide des villes qui engrangent les effets d'un exode rural qui ne faiblit pas. En second, la sécheresse avec en corollaire la pénurie d'eau qui tend à devenir une constante. Puis, une persistance aveugle à croire en un développement durable par le tourisme au Maroc et en Tunisie. Enfin, le refus de prendre en compte la régression générale des ressources permet de considérer les conflits d'usage sectoriels comme conjoncturels et de ne pas remettre en cause le modèle d'agriculture d'exportation qui reste le plus gros consommateur d'eau, principalement au Maroc. Tout cela semble converger vers l'idée que le développement urbain est donné une fois pour toute et qu'il sera toujours possible de trouver une solution au manque d'eau en temps voulu. Or, c'est cette idée ancrée dans les mentalités que nous voudrions discuter ici. Le développement durable des villes au Maghreb est-il acquis, ou bien, au contraire, des lendemains amers se profilent-ils déjà à l'horizon, sans qu'on en entrevoit bien l'issue ?
    Keywords: urbanisation ; besoin en eau ; hydraulique ; développement durable ; gestion de l'eau ; usage ; eau
    Date: 2007–02–06

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