nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2021‒08‒23
four papers chosen by

  1. Iraq—Technical Assistance Report-Customs Valuation, Rules of Origin and Tariff Classification of Goods By International Monetary Fund
  2. The Stra.Tech.Man scorecard By Vlados, Charis
  3. Honduras: Technical Assistance Report–Fiscal Transparency Evaluation By International Monetary Fund

  1. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This report summarizes key findings and recommendations from a remote technical assistance (TA) assignment performed by a short-term expert (STX), Mr. Djamel Bouhabel, from January 17 to February 4, 2021, to the General Customs Authority of Iraq (GCA). The main objective of the TA was to advise GCA on the development and effective application of customs assessment processes based on international standards and best practices.
    Keywords: Customs valuation audit process; World Bank staff; clearance audit; preferential rule; GCA staff; import goods classification; customs import declaration; Valuation, origin and classification; Tax administration core functions; Imports; Customs procedures; Post-clearance customs audit; Global
    Date: 2021–07–19
  2. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This article presents the “Stra.Tech.Man approach” (strategy-technology-management synthesis) as the basis for creating a “Stra.Tech.Man Scorecard,” which can be used for the strategic audit of every socio-economic organization. After reviewing the literature on strategic control and strategic audit, the study proceeds with a critical appraisal of Kaplan and Norton’s balanced scorecard model and presents the theoretical foundations of the Stra.Tech.Man approach. It composes a first conceptual outline of the Stra.Tech.Man Scorecard, which can function as an integrated monitoring tool, exploring and describing the evolution of “physiologies” of the studied socio-economic organizations (firms). It concludes that the formal balanced scorecard approach: (a) has been applied mainly to larger and more sophisticated organizations, (b) does not offer a compound understanding of the central dimensions of strategy, technology, and management that can be linked in an integrated way to the financial results, (c) leaves relatively unspecified many critical aspects of a firm’s choices, especially in strategy articulation, technology selection, and management implementation, (d) does not create complete profiles for the firms’ evolutionary physiologies. In contrast, the Stra.Tech.Man Scorecard: (i) does not have as a prerequisite any pre-existing systematic performance measurement framework in the organization and, therefore, it is not limited by any firm size, type, or physiology, (ii) it links in an evolutionary way the “core” qualitative dimensions of strategy, technology and management (Stra.Tech.Man audit) with the quantitative financial results of the organization, (iii) it can and has been used as an integrated analysis instrument by taking into account more adequately the evolutionary dimensions of the meso-environment of organizations besides the micro-level of analysis which the balanced scorecard is primarily associated.
    Keywords: Balanced Scorecard; Stra.Tech.Man Approach; Stra.Tech.Man Scorecard; Strategic Control; Strategic Audit; Stra.Tech.Man Audit
    JEL: L10 L20
    Date: 2021–02–23
  3. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This report evaluates Honduras’s fiscal transparency practices in relation to the IMF Fiscal Transparency Code (FTC). Honduras’s score is similar to those of other Latin American countries and emerging market economies that have undergone the evaluation. In relation to the fiscal transparency principles, Honduran practices are considered basic in 15 areas; good in seven areas; and advanced in six areas. Fiscal transparency practices in the area of fiscal forecasting and budgeting are the strongest, while the fiscal risk analysis and management practices are the weakest. Finally, Honduras’s current fiscal transparency practices fall short of the FTC principles in eight areas.
    Keywords: Universidad Nacional Autónoma; Desarrollo de Honduras; Dirección General de Inversión Pública; employee pension administrator; accounts payable; Banco Nacional de Desarrollo Agrícola; budget index; control de los Recursos Públicos; Unidad de Planeamiento y evaluation de la Gestión; Budget planning and preparation; Macroeconomic and fiscal forecasts; Fiscal risks; Financial statements; Central America
    Date: 2021–07–08
  4. By: Laetitia Gohlou Diomandé (UICL - CERF - Centre, d’Etudes, de Recherche et de Formation Continue, Sup'management.); Cedric Yao (UICL - CERF - Centre, d’Etudes, de Recherche et de Formation Continue, Sup'management.)
    Abstract: The asymmetry of information, resulting from the agency theory, is an aspect that is much complained about by banks regarding SMEs in Africa; and is one of the main reasons for the lack of financing of which these SMEs are victims. The informal structure of the African SME is the main reason for this information asymmetry. Thus far, banks have been content to require African SMEs to adapt to their operations, such as having financial data that meets legal requirements, but this has only widened the gap between these two actors. This thesis proposes the modeling of an information system that is as well adapted to the constraints of banks as to those of the African SME, in order to promote the permanent sharing of information between these two actors. The modeled system would allow both banks to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on African SMEs and the latter to meet the requirements of banks to obtain the financing they need.
    Abstract: L'asymétrie d'information, issue de la théorie de l'agence est un aspect qui est beaucoup décrié par les banques concernant les PME en Afrique ; et est l'une des causes du manque de financement dont sont victimes ces PME. Le caractère informel de la PME Africaine est la principale cause de cette asymétrie d'informations. Jusqu'à présent les banques se sont contentées d'exiger des PME Africaines qu'elles s'adaptent à leur fonctionnement comme le fait de disposer de données financières répondant aux critères légaux, mais cela n'a fait que creuser un peu plus le fossé entre ces deux acteurs. Cet article propose la modélisation d'un système d'informations aussi bien adaptée aux contraintes des banques qu'à celles de la PME Africaine, afin de favoriser le partage permanent d'informations entre ces deux acteurs. Le système modélisé permettrait à la fois aux banques d'obtenir des informations qualitatives et quantitatives sur les PME Africaines et à ces dernières de répondre aux exigences des banques pour l'obtention des financements dont elles ont besoin.
    Keywords: SME,Bank,Social netork,Informal sector,Financing,Asymétrie of information,information system,Process modeling,Accounting software,système d’information,asymétrie d’information,financement,secteur informel,Banque,PME,modélisation de processus,réseau social,logiciel comptable
    Date: 2021–08–06

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