nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2014‒10‒17
seven papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. Tax Reforms and Tax Burdens in selected OECD countries By Katerina MAKOVA
  2. Taxation Of R&D: Review Of Practices By Galina A. Kitova
  3. Japan's International Investment Position at Year-End 2012 By International Department
  4. Optimal Tax Progressivity in Unionised Labour Markets: What are the Driving Forces? By Stefan BOETERS
  5. Endogeneous Capital Agglomeration: a Consideration of the Expansion in Assets Disparity Between Countries By Yasuko Ishiguro
  6. Notional Defined Contribution Accounts: Application to Portugal By Filipe Aleman Serrano
  7. "Coping with Imbalances in the Euro Area: Policy Alternatives Addressing Divergences and Disparities between Member Countries" By Eckhard Hein; Daniel Detzer

  1. By: Katerina MAKOVA
  2. By: Galina A. Kitova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent years R&D tax incentives have been characterized by increasing scale and spread on innovation activity. Approaches to integrated R&D tax incentives into "recipes" for long-term growth and competitiveness were developed and tested in many countries. For exam-ple, only 12 OECD members employed R&D tax incentives in 1995, but 27 members do so in 2013 (as well as Brazil, China, India, Russia and other countries). And their share of total government expenditure on R&D (direct and tax) by OECD member countries reached at least a third. These trends have accompanied the development and testing of approaches to estimate the costs of tax support for R&D (including tax expenditures) and its effects and to ensure that they are internationally compatible. As for Russia, there are no officially accepted estimates of the scale and effectiveness of R&D and innovation tax support yet, though efforts to calculate them have been under way since 2010. This paper includes the current state of empirical research of tax support for R&D and in-novation in the Russian Federation, as well as a survey of the demand for its tools from research institutes, universities performing R&D, and manufacturing enterprises, which was conducted in 2012-2013. The results obtained demonstrate the power of empirical analysis and optimization of R&D and innovation tax incentives in the Russian Federation, against the background of the field's best practices and current trends.
    Keywords: R&D, innovation, tax incentives, tax expenditures, demand for R&D and in-novation tax incentives.
    JEL: H21 H22 H25
    Date: 2014
  3. By: International Department (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: Japan's external financial assets increased in 2012. Specifically, Japanese holdings of foreign bonds and notes increased due to an increase in their yen value reflecting the yen's depreciation compared to the previous year end as well as due to net purchases. Reserve assets also increased due to an increase in their yen value reflecting the yen's depreciation. Meanwhile, Japan's external liabilities also increased as a whole in 2012. This was due to increases in (1) foreign holdings of Japanese equity securities reflecting a rise in Japanese equity prices and (2) loans (liabilities) to foreign residents. Japan's net asset position increased in 2012 as the increase in assets exceeded that in liabilities. Net assets stood at 296.3 trillion yen at year-end 2012, up from 265.4 trillion yen at year-end 2011.
    Date: 2013–08–08
  4. By: Stefan BOETERS
  5. By: Yasuko Ishiguro
  6. By: Filipe Aleman Serrano (CEFAGE-UE, Universidade de Évora)
    Abstract: The amount of implicit debt is quantified in relation to the contributive regime that supports the old age pension scheme of the Portuguese Social Security and the notional defined contribution accounts system concept as a solution of financial sustainability of that regime is presented, without the need for altering the overall tax rules. In the management of the transition from a public defined benefit pension scheme to a defined contribution plan a series of theoretical principles are presented, namely, the data treatment, the acquired rights, the demographic deficits, benefits not financed and the distinct speed of conversion in the processes of such nature. The Swedish public pension system and its automatic balancing mechanism are characterized. Their underlying principles are applied to the Portuguese reality, essaying different speeds of conversion and distinct ways of computing the acquired rights. The results of the implicit debt, replacement rates, expenses and financial results of the new regimes are presented, based on a set of demographic and economic assumptions, provided by benchmark entities.
    Keywords: Notional defined contributions accounts; Automatic balancing mechanism; Replacement rates; Implicit debt; Swedish Public Pension system.
    JEL: H55
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Eckhard Hein; Daniel Detzer
    Abstract: In this paper we outline alternative policy recommendations addressing the problems of differential inflation, divergence in competitiveness, and associated current account imbalances within the euro area. The major purpose of these alternative policy proposals is to generate sustainably high demand and output growth in the euro area as a whole, providing high levels of noninflationary employment, as well as preventing "export-led mercantilist" and "debt-led consumption boom" types of development, both within the euro area and with respect to the role of the euro area in the world economy. We provide a basic framework in order to systematically address the related issues, making use of Anthony Thirlwall's model of a "balance-of-payments-constrained growth rate." Based on this framework, we outline the required stance for alternative economic policies and then discuss the implications for alternative monetary, wage/incomes, and fiscal policies in the euro area as a whole, as well as the consequences for structural and regional policies in the euro-area periphery in particular.
    Keywords: Competitiveness; Current Account Imbalances; Differential Inflation Rates; Euro Area Economic Policies
    JEL: E61 E62 E63 E64
    Date: 2014–09

This nep-acc issue is ©2014 by Alexander Harin. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.