nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2013‒05‒22
ten papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. Property Tax Decentralisation Program, Punjab, Pakistan : Business Blueprint By World Bank
  2. How Should Commodities Be Taxed? A Counterargument to the Recommendation in the Mirrlees Review By Bastani, Spencer; Blomquist, Sören; Pirttilä, Jukka
  3. Concentration Versus Re-Matching? Evidence About the Locational Effects of Commuting Costs By Michael J. Boehm
  4. The effect of debt on corporate profitability: Evidence from French service sector By Kebewar, Mazen; Shah, Syed Muhammad Noaman Ahmed
  5. Optimal Capital Taxation with Idiosyncratic Investment Risk By Catarina Reis; Vasia Panousi
  6. La structure du capital et la profitabilité: le cas des entreprises industrielles françaises By Kebewar, Mazen
  7. Structural and cyclical effects of tax progression By Kremer, Jana; Stähler, Nikolai
  8. Current state of utilization of financial controlling in the conditions of non-profit organizations in the Slovak Republic By Gabriela Vaceková
  9. The output effect of fiscal consolidations By Alberto Alesina; Carlo Favero; Francesco Giavazzi
  10. Features of IP rights enforcement in Korea and China By Nomura, Takashi; Okada, Saori; Yoshizaki, Takeshi

  1. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Private Sector Development - E-Business Taxation and Subsidies Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Banks and Banking Reform Governance - National Governance Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Date: 2012–01
  2. By: Bastani, Spencer (Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies); Blomquist, Sören (Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies); Pirttilä, Jukka (University of Tampere)
    Abstract: The Mirrlees Review recommends that commodity taxation should in general be uniform, but with some goods consumed in conjunction with labour supply (such as child care) left untaxed. This paper examines the validity of this claim in an optimal income tax framework. Contrary to the recommendation of the Review, our theoretical results imply that even if all goods other than the good needed for working are separable from leisure, the optimal tax on these goods should not be uniform. Instead, goods with larger expenditure elasticities should be discouraged relatively more by the tax system. If the government fully subsidises the cost of the good needed for working, then commodity taxation is uniform under the standard separability assumption. Our results imply that the optimal commodity tax system is dependent on the expenditure side of the government. A calibration exercise presented in the paper suggests that these results can be quantitatively important.
    Keywords: income taxation; commodity taxation; public provision; separability
    JEL: H21 H42
    Date: 2013–05–03
  3. By: Michael J. Boehm
    Abstract: Using administrative employer-employee data from Germany, I exploit two reductions of tax breaks for commuting in 2003/4 and 2006/7 to estimate commuting costs' effect on the decision to switch job and move house. Standard theory predicts that higher commuting costs should lead to increased concentration in urban centers. However, I find that re-matching of existing jobs and houses to reduce commuting distances is much more prevalent in the data. With these estimates I calculate the effect of a complete abolition of the tax breaks on overall travel distance, fuel usage, greenhouse gas emissions, the tax base, and the de-population of the countryside.
    Keywords: Work/residence location choice, commuting costs, environmental effects of tax policy, employer-employee data
    JEL: R00 J61 J68 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2013–05
  4. By: Kebewar, Mazen; Shah, Syed Muhammad Noaman Ahmed
    Abstract: Current study aims to provide new empirical evidence on the impact of debt on corporate profitability. This impact can be explained by three essential theories: signaling theory, tax theory and the agency cost theory. Using panel data sample of 2240 French non listed companies of service sector during 1999-2006. By utilizing generalized method of moments (GMM) econometric technique on three measures of profitability ratio (PROF1, PROF2 and ROA), we show that debt ratio has no effect on corporate profitability, regardless of the size of company (VSEs, SMEs or LEs). -- L'étude actuelle a pour but de fournir une nouvelle évidence empirique sur l'impact de dette sur la profitabilité d'entreprise. Cet impact peut être expliqué par trois théories essentielles: la théorie du signal, l’influence de la fiscalité et la théorie de l’agence. En utilisant un échantillon d’un panel de 2240 entreprises Françaises non cotées du secteur des services au cours de la période 1999-2006. En utilisant la méthode des moments généralisée (GMM) sur trois mesures de ratio de rentabilité (PROF1, PROF2 et ROA), nous montrons que le ratio de la dette n'a aucun effet sur la profitabilité des entreprises, quelle que soit la taille de l'entreprise (TPE, PME ou ETI).
    Keywords: Debt,GMM,Panel data,Profitability
    JEL: C33 G32 L25
    Date: 2013–01
  5. By: Catarina Reis (Universidade Catolica Portuguesa); Vasia Panousi (Federal Reserve Board)
    Abstract: We examine the optimal taxation of capital in a Ramsey setting of a general-equilibrium heterogeneous-agent economy with uninsurable idiosyncratic investment or capital-income risk. We fully characterize the optimal tax in the case where there is no safe income in the economy. When the interest rate is allowed to adjust to changes in the capital tax, the optimal capital tax is always constant, even off steady state, and is positive when the variance of risk is higher than the mean return to the risky asset. When the interest rate is exogenously fixed, the optimal capital tax is zero. Therefore, general-equilibrium considerations are crucial for the dynamic effects of capital taxation when investment is risky.
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Kebewar, Mazen
    Abstract: L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser l’impact de la structure du capital sur la profitabilité. Nous montrons, à partir d’un échantillon de 1846 entreprises industrielles françaises prises sur la période 1999-2006, à l’aide d’une étude sur panel dynamique en utilisant la méthode des moments généralisée (GMM), que la structure du capital n’a aucune influence sur la profitabilité des entreprises industrielles françaises quelle que soit la taille de l’entreprise. -- The objective of this article is to analyze the impact of capital structure on profitability. This impact can be explained by three essential theories: signaling theory, tax theory and the agency costs theory. A sample of 1846 French industrial firms are taken over the period 1999-2006, as a dynamic panel study by using the generalized method of moments (GMM). We show that capital structure has no influence on the profitability of French firms, regardless the size of the company.
    Keywords: Structure du capital,profitabilité,GMM,données de panel
    JEL: C33 G32 L25
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Kremer, Jana; Stähler, Nikolai
    Abstract: In a real business cycle model with labor market frictions, we find that a more progressive tax schedule reduces structural unemployment as it fosters long-run incentives for job creation. Because there exists an optimal level of unemployment in a matching environment ('Hosios condition'), tax progression improves steadystate welfare up to a certain threshold and harms it beyond that. However, tax progression increases the costs of business cycles for those consumers who can save and borrow, while it reduces the business cycle costs for households with limited asset market participation ('rule-of-thumb' consumers). Our analysis suggests that business cycle effects dominate steady-state effects. On the aggregate level, tax progression is welfare-enhancing up to a certain threshold and always shifts relative utility from optimizing to rule-of-thumb consumers. These findings are quite robust to alternative calibrations of our model. --
    Keywords: Tax Progression,Business Cycles,Automatic Stabilizers,Welfare
    JEL: H2 J6 E32 E62
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Gabriela Vaceková (Department of Public Economics, Masaryk University)
    Abstract: The paper presents partial results of a pilot primary research (pre-research) of utilization of financial controlling tools in governmental and non-governmental non-profit organizations in the conditions of Slovak Republic. Primary data were obtained by the sociological method of a structured questionnaire. The analyzis was carried out by adequate mathematical and statistical methods for processing qualitative data and ordinal variables.The presented paper provides a new insight into the studied problem while generating a primary information basis for further scientific study and research work in this field.
    Keywords: Financial controlling. Non-profit organizations. Financial stability. Primary research.
    JEL: L31 L39
    Date: 2012–12
  9. By: Alberto Alesina; Carlo Favero; Francesco Giavazzi
    Abstract: Fiscal consolidations achieved by means of spending cuts are much less costly in terms of output losses than tax-based ones. The difference cannot be explained by accompanying policies, including monetary policy, and it is mainly due to the different response of business confidence and private investment. We obtain these results by studying the effects of the adoption of fiscal consolidation plans (rather than isolated shocks), that is combinations of tax increases and spending cuts, some unanticipated, other anticipated, in a sample of 16 OECD economies..Keywords: fiscal adjustment, output, confidence, investment JEL Classification: H60, E62
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Nomura, Takashi; Okada, Saori; Yoshizaki, Takeshi
    Abstract: This report examines recent updates to the regulation and enforcement of intellectual property (IP) rights in Korea and China, in particular patent rights including invention, utility, and design rights. This paper also discusses some features and issues of the actual IP enforcement situation in those countries in comparison with Japan.
    Keywords: East Asia, South Korea, China, Intellectual property, Patents, Industrial property law, Copyrights, IP enforcement, Korea
    JEL: K33 K41 K42
    Date: 2013–04

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