nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2013‒04‒27
seven papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. Financial accounting and reporting in Germany: A case study on German accounting tradition and experiences with the IFRS adoption By Fülbier, Rolf Uwe; Klein, Malte
  2. Tax attractiveness and the location of German-controlled subsidiaries By Keller, Sara; Schanz, Deborah
  3. Tax-benefit systems, income distribution and work incentives in the European Union By Jara Tamayo, Holguer Xavier; Tumino, Alberto
  4. Average Marginal Income Tax Rates for New Zealand, 1907-2009 By Fiona McAlister; Debasis Bandyopadhyay; Robert Barro; Jeremy Couchman; Norman Gemmell; Gordon Liao
  5. Environmental tax reform and induced technological change By YAMAGAMI, Hiroaki
  6. The impact of the Goods and Services Tax on mortgage costs of Australian credit unions By Benjamin Liu; Allen Huang
  7. EUROMOD: The European Union Tax-Benefit Microsimulation Model By Sutherland, Holly; Figari, Francesco

  1. By: Fülbier, Rolf Uwe; Klein, Malte
    Abstract: Financial accounting is rooted in national thoughts, traditions and institutional settings. As a consequence, accounting has developed heterogeneously over time and fulfilled contracting purposes in divergent national environments. Against this background, we argue that the ongoing process of accounting internationalization and imposed harmonization carries with it the danger of deforming country-specific balancing factors in the accounting systems, especially when the national environment for economic and contractual activities is not harmonized at all. In contrast to more evolutionary integration and adjustment processes of the past where spillover effects have always existed, the rapidity of the current process and coercive nature increases country-specific frictions. To support our argument and to substantiate the interplay of accounting as a contractual device and country-specific characteristics, we provide an in-depth case study of one country, Germany. We illustrate how the traditional German commercial law accounting system has evolved over time to meet specific contractual needs. We demonstrate how the current process of globalization and accounting internationalization has been attended by increasing frictions and challenges, especially on the contractual and regulatory level. We finally investigate the consequences on the German standard setting system, which also includes the changing role of German accounting research. -- Als standardisierte Kommunikation zwischen Unternehmensbeteiligten wurzelt Rechnungslegung stets auch in nationalen Traditionen, Konzepten und institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen. Insofern verwundert es nicht, dass sich Rechnungslegung weltweit heterogen entwickelt hat und unter unterschiedlichen nationalen Bedingungen unterschiedlichen Zwecken folgt. Dabei birgt die seit Jahren zu beobachtende Internationalisierung und oktroyierte Harmonisierung der Rechnungslegung die Gefahr, landesspezifische (Ausgleichs-)Faktoren in der Rechnungslegung zu nivellieren, obwohl sonstige Rahmenbedingungen unternehmerischer Aktivität keineswegs harmonisiert sind. Im Gegensatz zu den eher evolutorischen Integrations- und Anpassungsprozessen der Vergangenheit, in denen Einflüsse anderer Systeme durchaus erkennbar waren, dürften die Schnelligkeit und der regulatorische Zwangscharakter des gegenwärtigen Prozesses landesspezifische Friktionen erzeugen. Um diese Argumentation zu untermauern und um das komplexe Zusammenspiel von Rechnungslegung als Vertragskoordinationsinstrument mit landesspezifischen Rahmenbedingungen zu verdeutlichen, wird eine detaillierte Fallstudie präsentiert, die auf ein einziges Land, Deutschland, zielt. Darin wird aufgezeigt wie sich handelsrechtliche, deutsche Bilanzierungstradition vor dem Hintergrund spezifischer Koordinationsbedürfnisse historisch entwickelt hat. Untersucht werden zudem die Friktionen und Herausforderungen auf unternehmensvertraglicher wie auch regulatorischer Ebene, die durch den gegenwärtigen Internationalisierungsprozess in der Rechnungslegung ausgelöst werden. Die Untersuchung schließt die dahingehenden Konsequenzen für das System der deutschen Rechnungslegungsregulierung und für die Rechnungslegungsforschung mit ein.
    Keywords: German Accounting,Accounting Research,HGB,Code Law,Legal System,Socioeconomic-Environment,Institutional Settings,SME,Book-Tax-Conformity,Debt Financing,Accounting History
    JEL: K22 M41 N00 N24 N44
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Keller, Sara; Schanz, Deborah
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether taxation has an influence on the location decisions of multinational enterprises. As a tax measure, we employ the Tax Attractiveness Index (see Keller and Schanz 2013). This index covers 18 different tax factors, such as the taxation of dividends and capital gains, withholding taxes, the existence of a group taxation regime, and thin capitalization rules. Our count data regression analysis is based on a novel hand-collected data set consisting of the subsidiaries of German DAX30 companies. Controlling for non-tax effects, we find that a country's tax environment as measured by the Tax Attractiveness Index has a significantly positive effect on the number of Germancontrolled subsidiaries located there. Hence, our study implies that location decisions depend on a bundle of tax factors as captured by the index. In a second step, we show that the location decisions of German DAX30 companies cannot be explained by the statutory tax rate alone. In contrast, withholding taxes, double treaty networks, and special holding regimes seem to play a decisive role in location decisions. Previous studies examining only the influence of statutory tax rates may thus have underestimated the effects of taxation on the activities of multinational companies. --
    Keywords: tax attractiveness,location decision,multinational enterprise,count data model
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Jara Tamayo, Holguer Xavier; Tumino, Alberto
    Abstract: In this paper we study the impact of tax-benefit systems on income inequality and work incentivesacross the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU). Using EUROMOD, the EU-wide taxbenefitmicrosimulation model, we disentangle the role of taxes, benefits and social insurancecontributions in influencing country specific Gini coefficients and Marginal Effective Tax Rates.The extent to which tax-benefit systems contribute to income redistribution and provide work incentives at the intensive margin is found to vary considerably across the 27 Member States of the EU. Our results further highlight the presence of a trade-off between income redistribution and work incentives across EU-27 countries.
    Date: 2013–03–28
  4. By: Fiona McAlister; Debasis Bandyopadhyay; Robert Barro; Jeremy Couchman; Norman Gemmell; Gordon Liao (The Treasury)
    Abstract: Estimates of marginal tax rates (MTRs) faced by individual economic agents, and for various ggregates of taxpayers, are important for economists testing behavioural responses to changes in those tax rates. This paper reports estimates of a number of personal marginal income tax rate measures for New Zealand since 1907, focusing mainly on the aggregate income-weighted average MTRs proposed by Barro and Sahasakul (1983, 1986) and Barro and Redlick (2011). The paper describes the methodology used to derive the various MTRs from original data on incomes and taxes from Statistics New Zealand Official Yearbooks (NZOYB), and discusses the resulting estimates.
    Keywords: Average marginal tax rates; New Zealand
    JEL: H20 H24
    Date: 2012–09
  5. By: YAMAGAMI, Hiroaki
    Abstract: This paper examines the importance of induced technological change in considering the efficiency costs of environmental policy. In particular, in modeling an endogenous formation of energy-saving technology through a variety of intermediates, the paper studies the welfare effects of environmental tax reform in a general equilibrium model. Using this model, the paper shows that environmental tax reform induces an expansion of the variety of intermediates by increasing rents from innovating new intermediates and, thereby, brings technological change. Then, the induced variety expansion by environmental tax reform achieves positive externalities and plays an important role both to decrease the efficiency costs and to improve the environmental quality.
    Keywords: Double dividend, Energy saving, Environmental tax reform, Induced technological change, Tax-interaction effect
    JEL: D62 H23 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2013–04
  6. By: Benjamin Liu; Allen Huang
    Keywords: Australian GST, mortgage costs of credit unions, housing affordability, lender pricing behaviour
    JEL: G21 G14 H25 G12
    Date: 2013–01
  7. By: Sutherland, Holly; Figari, Francesco
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide an introduction to the current state of the art of EUROMOD, the European Union tax-benefit microsimulation model. It explains the original motivations for building a multi-country EU-wide model and summarises its current organisation. It provides an overview of EUROMOD components, covering its policy scope, the input data, the validation process and some technical aspects such as the tax-benefit programming language and the user interface. The paper also reviews some recent applications of EUROMOD and, finally, considers future developments.
    Date: 2013–03–28

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