nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2013‒03‒09
six papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. Corporate taxation and the quality of research and development By Ernst, Christof; Richter, Katharina; Riedel, Nadine
  2. Value Added Tax Revisited: Toward a Reasonable Consumption Tax Reform in Japan By Yukinobu Kitamura
  3. Commodity price volatility and tax revenue: Evidence from developing countries. By Ehrhart, H.; Guerineau, S.
  4. Composition effects of the German Federal Government on the average top income tax burden By Scharfenkamp, Katrin
  5. Destabilizing Balanced-Budget Consumption Taxes in Multi-Sector Economies By Kazuo Nishimura; Carine Nourry; Thomas Seegmuller; Alain Venditti
  6. The impact of the French Tobin tax By Leonardo Becchetti; Massimo Ferrari; Ugo Trenta

  1. By: Ernst, Christof; Richter, Katharina; Riedel, Nadine
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of tax incentives on corporate research and development (R&D) activity. Traditionally, R&D tax incentives have been provided in the form of special tax allowances and tax credits. In recent years, several countries moreover reduced their income tax rates on R&D output. Previous papers have shown that all three tax instruments are effective in raising the quantity of R&D related activity. We provide evidence that, beyond this quantity effect, corporate taxation also distorts the quality of R&D projects, i.e. their innovativeness and revenue potential. Using rich data on corporate patent applications to the European patent office, we find that a low tax rate on patent income is instrumental in attracting innovative projects with a high earnings potential and innovation level. The effect is statistically significant and economically relevant and prevails in a number of sensitivity checks. R&D tax credits and tax allowances are in turn not found to exert a statistically significant impact on project quality. --
    Keywords: corporate taxation,research and development,micro data
    JEL: H3 H7 J5
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Yukinobu Kitamura
    Abstract: This paper explores a reasonable consumption tax (VAT) reform in Japan, after passing the tax reform bill in the Diet in August 2012. First, the macro (SNA) data indicates that tax revenue increases by about 12 trillion yen if the VAT rate is raised from 5% to 10%. Secondly, the VAT revenue function reveals the revenue elasticity with respect to 1% consumption increase is 0.96. This is very efficient. Thirdly, remaining tax administration issues are discussed. Fourthly the empirical consumer demand system (QUAIDS) is derived from the optimal consumption behavior. Fifthly, using Family Income and Expenditure Survey from January 1985 to April 2012 for the two or more member worker’s household, food and health & medical expenditure indicate significantly negative price elasticity of demand and those for other expenditures are insignificant, i.e. zero. It is justifiable to set a uniform tax rate for those items except food and health & medical expenditure. As to health & medical expenditure, many items within health & medical expenditure are already tax exempt and thus effective tax rate for health & medical expenditure is around 2%. There is no need to consider a further tax rate reduction for this. As to food expenditure, effective tax rate is around 7% due to alcohol and other sales tax. This item is worth considering a reduction of tax rate. However, a share of food expenditure is quite high (i.e. around 20%) so that tax revenue loss would be high if a reduced tax rate is applied for many food items. In addition, it will be quite arbitrary and politically biased to decide as to which food items are to be tax reduced. For a moment, it may be reasonable not to implement any tax reduction for food items.
    Date: 2013–01
  3. By: Ehrhart, H.; Guerineau, S.
    Abstract: In this paper we assess the impact of commodity price volatility on tax revenues, while existing works were concentrated on its effect on economic growth. Our empirical analysis is carried out on 80 developing countries over 1980-2008. We compute country-specific indices which measure the volatility of the international price of 41 commodities in the sectors of agriculture, minerals and energy. We find robust evidence that tax revenues in developing countries are hurt by the volatility of commodity prices. More specifically, the volatility of import prices decreases revenues from international trade tax while the volatility of export prices reduces revenues from income tax. We also show that this negative effect on tax revenues is not homogenous between countries. First, the export price volatility impact is negative except for oil exporters for whom it is null. Second, the magnitude of the negative impact of import price volatility on tax revenues depends on the tariff structure, i.e. is greater in countries where tariff dispersion is high.
    Keywords: Price Volatility, Tax revenues, Commodities, Developing economies.
    JEL: E62 O13 F10
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Scharfenkamp, Katrin
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether the setting of the German top income tax burden is affected by the composition of the Federal Government in terms of connectedness with the national (academic) elite and company network from 1958 to 2011. The results reveal that the percentages of university graduates, former executive board members, as well as the governments average age at the time of decision are related to a lower average top income tax burden. Conversely and surprisingly, an increasing percentage of former members of a supervisory board is associated with a higher average top income tax burden. Interestingly, varying percentages of governmental members with an elitist social background are not aligned with the tax setting. Finally, the higher the difference of mandates between CDU & CSU and those of the SPD in the German Parliament, the lower is the average top income tax burden. -- Dieses Papier untersucht, ob die Festlegung der durchschnittlichen Steuerbelastung deutscher Spitzenverdiener zwischen 1958 und 2011 von der Zusammensetzung der Bundesregierung in Form von Verbindungen zur nationalen (akademischen) Elite und dem Unternehmensnetzwerk beeinflusst wird. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Anteil an Universitätsabsolventen, früheren Vorstandsmitgliedern und das durchschnittliche Alter der Regierung zum Zeitpunkt der Entscheidung mit einer durchschnittlich niedrigeren Steuerbelastung deutscher Spitzenverdiener verbunden sind. Im Gegensatz hierzu und überraschenderweise ist ein steigender Anteil früherer Aufsichtsratsmitglieder mit einer durchschnittlich höheren Steuerbelastung deutscher Spitzenverdiener verknüpft. Interessanterweise findet sich keine Verbindung eines variierenden Anteils von Regierungsmitgliedern mit elitärem Hintergrund auf Spitzensteuerlast. Schließlich ist die durchschnittliche Steuerbelastung deutscher Spitzenverdiener umso geringer, je höher die Differenz an Bundestagsmandaten zwischen CDU/CSU und SPD ist.
    JEL: D83 D85 H24 P16
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Kazuo Nishimura (Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University); Carine Nourry (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS-GREQAM, EHESS & Institut Universitaire de France); Thomas Seegmuller (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS-GREQAM & EHESS); Alain Venditti (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS-GREQAM, EHESS & EDHEC)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of balanced-budget consumption taxes on the existence of expectations-driven business cycles in two-sector economies with infinitely-lived households. We prove that, whatever the relative capital intensity difference across sectors, aggregate instability can occur if the consumption tax rate is not too low. Moreover, we show through a numerical exercise based on empirically plausible tax rates that endogenous business-cycle fluctuations may be a source of instability for all OECD countries, including the US.
    Keywords: Aggregate instability, indeterminacy, expectations-driven fluctuations, consumption taxes, balanced-budget rule, infinite-horizon two-sector model.
    JEL: C62 E32 H20 O41
    Date: 2013–03
  6. By: Leonardo Becchetti (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Massimo Ferrari (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Ugo Trenta (Poste Italiane)
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of the introduction of the French Tobin tax on volumes, liquidity and volatility of affected stocks with parametric and non parametric tests on individual stocks, difference in difference tests and other robustness checks controlling for simultaneous month-of-the-year and size effects. Our findings document that the tax has a significant impact in terms of reduction in transaction volumes and intraday volatility. The reduction in volumes traded occurs in similar proportion in non taxed small cap stocks.
    Keywords: Financial Transaction Tax; intraday volatility; liquidity, transaction volumes
    JEL: G18 G12 G14
    Date: 2013–03–01

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