nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2010‒01‒16
sixteen papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. Fair Value Accounting: The Road to Be Most Travelled By Rock Lefebvre; Elena Simonova; Mihaela Scarlat
  2. Quantitative methods in accounting research By Marek Gruszczynski
  3. Should business and non-business accounting be different? By Yuri Biondi
  4. Regulating non audit services: Towards a principles based approach to regulation By Ojo, Marianne
  5. Financial Disclosure and the Board: Is Independence of Directors Always Efficient By Antoine Reberioux; Yuri Biondi; Giannoccolo Pierpaolo
  6. Investigating the Governmental Accounting Reform of Greek National Health System (ESY): Some preliminary Evidence By FILIPPOS STAMATIADIS, Mr
  7. Fair Value Accounting By Michel Magnan; Daniel Thornton
  8. Heterogeneous firms, "Profit Shifting" FDI and international tax competition By Sebastian Krautheim; Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr
  9. Dual Income Taxes: A Nordic Tax System By Peter Birch Sørensen
  10. The Theory of Optimal Taxation: New Developments and Policy Relevance By Peter Birch Sørensen
  11. Fiscal, Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Land and Property Taxes By Andrew Coleman; Arthur Grimes
  12. Accounting aspects of ocean iron fertilization By Wilfried Rickels; Katrin Rehdanz; Andreas Oschlies
  13. Fiscal Federalism in Belgium: Main Challenges and Considerations for Reform By Willi Leibfritz
  14. Can lower tax rates be bought? Business rent-seeking and tax competition among U.S. states By Robert S. Chirinko; Daniel J. Wilson
  15. How to Reform the Belgian Tax System to Enhance Economic Growth By Jens Høj
  16. Corporate tax consolidation and enhanced coorporation in the European Union By Leon Bettendorf; Albert van der Horst; Ruud A. de Mooij; Hendrik Vrijburg

  1. By: Rock Lefebvre (Certified General Accountants Association of Canada); Elena Simonova (Certified General Accountants Association of Canada); Mihaela Scarlat (Certified General Accountants Association of Canada)
    Abstract: Fair value convention has polarized two opposing views – the first, that fair value accounting compounds economic hardship and distortion – and the second, that fair value accounting affords an accurate rendering of the market value of underlying assets and liabilities. This paper intends to clarify some of the underlying arguments by presenting a brief overview of fair value accounting, and the main advantages and disadvantages of using fair value regime. The analysis shows that only certain assets and liabilities are required to be measured at fair value and the degree to which unrealized gains and losses associated with fair value measurement are reflected in the financial statements depends on the intended use of assets and liabilities in question. The two main arguments against fair value accounting – exacerbated procyclicality and increased volatility of the financial statements – are amply counterbalanced by arguments in favour of fair value accounting. The latter includes the significance of limitations associated with historical cost accounting, increased relevance of information presented to investors and lower expected likelihood of earnings management under fair value accounting.
    Keywords: fair value accounting, accounting, accounting standards
    JEL: M41 G18 G15
    Date: 2009–12
  2. By: Marek Gruszczynski (Warsaw School of Economics)
    Abstract: Quantitative methods are in frequent use in modern accounting research. The evidence may be found e.g. in the journals like “Journal of Accounting Research”, “European Accounting Review”, “Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting” or in the Accounting Research Network in SSRN base. Paper presents a brief survey of research areas and statistical-econometric approaches in accounting research. Particular reference goes to research on corporate disclosure. Methodological component of the paper includes remarks on the use of binary response models with choice-based and matched samples as well as comments on the sample selection approaches.
    Keywords: accounting research, corporate disclosure, binary response, choice-based samples, matched samples, sample selection
    JEL: M41 C31 C35
    Date: 2009–12–30
  3. By: Yuri Biondi (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées a la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II, PREG - Pole de recherche en économie et gestion - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X)
    Abstract: With the enactment of the General Law of Finances of 2001 (LOLF, 2001), the French Government introduced a new set of accounting standards shaped by an explicit conceptual framework. This legislation retains for public sector accounting the logic of financial reporting that had been in effect for business enterprises, but also addresses the “specificities” of accounting for public sector entities. The advent of LOLF has raised a number of questions about how to make non-business entities “accountable.” In this context, this paper analyzes the new French “accounting constitution” from a theoretical perspective that compares business enterprise and non-business accounting representations. The concept of non-business entity is used to explore further the nature and role of public sector activities within the economic system and their economic and monetary significance. Following this approach, three different views of accruals-based accounting for business enterprises are addressed: the wealth-basis (static), the cash-basis, and the flow-basis (dynamic). Whilst the wealth-basis refers to fair value and results to be at odds with the specificities of the public sector economics, a dynamic view of the accruals basis is developed and adapted to these specificities. This dynamic view is applied to a conceptual assessment of the new French accounting set. In particular, the notions of “produit” (revenue) and “actif” (asset) create an ambiguity between the static view and the dynamic view.
    Keywords: public accountability; accruals and cash accounting; non-business accounting; governmental accounting theory and standards; France; nature and role of the accounting entity
    Date: 2009–06–15
  4. By: Ojo, Marianne
    Abstract: Based on the argument that the benefits conferred through the provision of non audit services by audit firms outweigh the attributed costs of safeguarding the auditor's independence, this paper will not only seek to justify this argument, advance proposals which do not favour an outright prohibition of the provision of non audit services, but also consider means through which non audit services could be regulated in order to facilitate competition in the audit market. At the same time it will consider various legislation which have been introduced in recent years and which are aimed at facilitating greater disclosure of information – hence improving transparency within the audit and financial markets. “Specific measures,” it is contended, “would involve not only the introduction of new standards (for example – the disclosure of client concentration) but also the elimination of current restrictions“. Different types of safeguards which exist in order “to mitigate or eliminate threats” to the auditor’s independence, as a result of the provision of non audit services, will be considered against the regulator’s aim to facilitate competition, enhance disclosure and promote other practices which would advance the regulator’s endeavour to be more “market friendly”. The consultation on control structures in audit firms and their consequences on the audit market, a consultation which was launched by the European Commission as part of its efforts to create more market players, could be regarded as a response to such proposals to facilitate a more “market friendly” environment and also to concerns that the financial market is already over regulated. Some of the possible ways advanced by the Commission as channels for facilitating greater entry into the international market include the deregulation of the capitalisation of audit firms as a catalyst for facilitating greater entry into the audit market. Deregulation of the capital structure in this sense is considered to be a “modification of Article 3 (4) of the 2006 Directive on Statutory Audit which should however not be to the detriment of robust independence rules.”
    Keywords: Principles based regulation; audit; directives; regulation; market; NAS (non audit services)
    JEL: K2 G18 G3 M42
    Date: 2009–12–17
  5. By: Antoine Reberioux (EconomiX - CNRS : UMR7166 - Université de Paris X - Nanterre); Yuri Biondi (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées a la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II, PREG - Pole de recherche en économie et gestion - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X); Giannoccolo Pierpaolo (dpt of Economics - Université de Bologne)
    Abstract: In listed companies, the Board of directors is the ultimate responsible of information disclosure. The "conventional wisdom" considers independence of directors as the essential attribute to improve the quality of that disclosure. In a sense, this approach subordinates expertise to independence. However, effective certification may require finn-specific expertise, in particular for intangible-intensive business models. However, this latter form of expertise is negatively related to independence as it is commonly measured and evaluated. We show that there exists an optimal share of independent directors for each company, related to the magnitude of intangible resources.
    Keywords: Board of directors; information disclosure; accounting; intangible resources
    Date: 2009–12
    Abstract: During the last decades, several countries worldwide have introduced financial management reforms as an important part of the New Public Management (NPM) initiative at one or more levels of government sector, by replacing or transforming their traditional budgetary cash accounting systems towards business-like accrual accounting. Following the example of this upcoming managerial trend, the Greek government introduced in 1997 an accrual based accounting system (ABAS) and double-entry book-keeping method in all public hospitals. The hospital sector is one of the areas where NPM reforms have been introduced in search of higher efficiency in service production. The purpose of this paper is twofold. Our first goal is to provide an overview of the government sector reform initiatives in Greece and to present evidence regarding the adoption rate of the new accounting system by the Greek public health sector. The second goal of our research is to present the perceived usefulness of the accounting information provided by the proposed accounting reform as well as the implementation problems encountered in implementing ABAS. Our analysis is based on the results of an empirical survey that took place during 2008. For the purposes of this survey, a structured questionnaire was prepared and sent to the Finance Directors of 132 Greek public hospitals.
    Keywords: Accrual Accounting; Public Sector Accounting; Public Hospitals; New Public Management.
    JEL: M41
    Date: 2009–06–23
  7. By: Michel Magnan; Daniel Thornton
    Abstract: The paper provides a genesis of fair value accounting (FVA) and reviews some research and empirical evidence that are relevant to the debate surrounding its use. We also comment on FVA’s role in the financial crisis: was it just the messenger of bad news or was it “procyclical,” contributing to the sad state of the economy in addition to reporting on it? We briefly characterize FVA as comprising three levels of valuation: level 1 for assets/liabilities for which market values are directly observable, level 2 for assets/liabilities for which market-derived inputs, but not prices, are observable and level 3 for assets/liabilities which value is derived from models. We conclude that the use of FVA by regulators was probably procyclical for level 1 FVA assets, i.e., those assets which accounting values were based upon directly observable market prices. In contrast, accounting values for FVA assets that were not actively traded (levels 2 and 3) probably lagged market developments and were likely biased in their valuation. Our analysis also suggests that the appropriateness of FVA-derived valuation is conditional upon market conditions (efficiency and liquidity), and that fundamental valuation drivers such as an asset/ liability underlying cash flows are still relevant valuation inputs despite the existence of concurrent market prices. The paper concludes with some observations regarding the role of auditors, regulators, standard-setters and investors regarding FVA-derived information. <P>Le document présente une genèse de la comptabilisation à la juste valeur et revoit certains travaux de recherche et certaines preuves empiriques qui sont pertinents dans le cadre du débat entourant le recours à cette méthode. Nous commentons aussi le rôle de la comptabilisation à la juste valeur dans le contexte de la crise financière : a-t-elle simplement été un indicateur de mauvaises nouvelles ou a-t-elle été « procyclique », c’est-à-dire a-t-elle contribué à la triste situation économique en plus d’informer sur celle-ci ? Nous décrivons brièvement la comptabilisation à la juste valeur comme étant constituée de trois niveaux d’évaluation : le niveau 1 pour les actifs/passifs dont la valeur de marché est directement observable ; le niveau 2 pour les actifs/passifs dont les données issues du marché, mais non les prix, sont observables ; et le niveau 3 pour les actifs/passifs dont la valeur est obtenue à partir de modèles. Nous concluons que le recours à la méthode de comptabilisation à la juste valeur par les organismes de réglementation a probablement été procyclique dans le cas des éléments d’actif du niveau 1 évalués selon cette méthode, c’est-à-dire les actifs dont les valeurs comptables était fondées sur les prix du marché directement observables. En comparaison, les valeurs comptables établies selon la comptabilisation à la juste valeur dans le cas des éléments d’actif qui n’étaient pas fortement négociés (niveaux 2 et 3) ont probablement pris du recul par rapport à l’évolution du marché et ont vraisemblablement fait l’objet d’opinions biaisées quant à leur estimation. Notre analyse permet aussi de penser que la pertinence de l’évaluation selon la comptabilisation à la juste valeur est tributaire des conditions du marché (efficience et fluidité) et que les facteurs d’évaluation fondamentaux, dont les flux de trésorerie sous-jacents aux actifs/passifs, sont toujours pertinents malgré l’existence de prix du marché parallèles. En terminant, le document offre des observations au sujet du rôle des vérificateurs, des organismes de réglementation et de normalisation, ainsi que des investisseurs en ce qui a trait à l’information qui se dégage de la comptabilisation à la juste valeur.
    Keywords: Fair value accounting, procyclicality, liquidity crisis, fair market value, market efficiency, bubble, comptabilisation à la juste valeur, procyclicalité, crise de liquidité, juste valeur marchande, efficience du marché, bulle
    Date: 2009–12–01
  8. By: Sebastian Krautheim (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris); Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr (European University Institute - EUI)
    Abstract: Larger firms are more likely to use tax haven operations to exploit international tax differences. We study a tax game between a large country and a tax haven modeling heterogenous monopolistic firms, which can shift profits abroad. We shows that a higher degree of firm heterogeneity (a mean-preserving spread of the cost distribution) increases the degree of tax competition, i.e. it decreases the equilibrium tax rate of the large country, leads to higher outflows of its tax base and thus decreases its equilibrium tax revenue. Similar effects hold for a higher substitutability across varieties. We find that models with homogeneous firms understate the strenght of tax competition.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous firms, tax competition, profit shifting, tax havens.
    Date: 2009–10
  9. By: Peter Birch Sørensen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income tax could be relevant for New Zealand.
    Date: 2009–03
  10. By: Peter Birch Sørensen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: The theory of optimal taxation has often been criticized for being of little practical policy relevance, due to a lack of robust theoretical results. This paper argues that recent advances in optimal tax theory has made that theory easier to apply and may help to explain some current trends in international tax policy. Covering the taxation of labour income and capital income as well as indirect taxation, the paper also illustrates how some of the key results in optimal tax theory may be derived in a simple, heuristic manner.
    Keywords: optimal taxation; uniform taxation; tax neutrality
    JEL: H21 H24 H25
    Date: 2009–04
  11. By: Andrew Coleman (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Arthur Grimes (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Land taxes are known to be amongst the most efficient forms of taxation since land is an immobile factor; property (capital value) taxes are less efficient owing to the tax on improvements. However there is little international (or New Zealand) evidence regarding the distributional impacts of land and property taxes. Nor is there much New Zealand evidence on their potential fiscal implications or about the taxes’ impacts on asset values and debt positions. We explore impacts that may arise from a range of land and property taxes that differ across certain features (e.g. comprehensiveness and degree of grand-fathering). Both partial and general equilibrium models are used. The results provide a basis for considering alternative taxation options involving land or property taxes.
    Keywords: land tax, property tax
    JEL: H21 H22 H24
    Date: 2009
  12. By: Wilfried Rickels; Katrin Rehdanz; Andreas Oschlies
    Abstract: Diminishing emission budgets and increasing risks of catastrophic damages from climate change require analyses of rapid response options including geoengineering options such as ocean iron fertilization (OIF). To decide whether or not OIF might be such an option an assessment of its potential as an abatement option as well as its possible side effects is required. To explore the potential of OIF knowledge on the change of carbon stocks over time is needed. However, economic aspects including accounting of carbon credits need to be considered as well. In our analysis we use data from OIF modeling experiments for different years and analyze how many carbon credits would be generated and could be used for compliance. The amount of credit varies with the accounting method applied. Applying an accounting method which measures the net effect of OIF for the duration of 100 years leads to an annual carbon uptake of 0.56 to 1.69 GtC. For a shorter fertilization period, e.g. ten years the upper range increases to 2.57 GtC per year. Offsets due to other GHGs, especially N2O, as well as operational carbon emissions can be addressed by a discount factor. Considering all experiments and all accounting methods we find a maximum discount factor of 15 percent and an average value of 9 percent. From an economic as well as from an environmental perspective issuing temporary carbon credits which have to be replaced in the next commitment period seems most appropriate for short-term OIF and would provide the largest amount of credits at an early stage. This is equivalent to the existing tCER regulation under the Kyoto Protocol.
    Keywords: climate change, ocean iron fertilization, permanence, carbon accounting
    JEL: Q51 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2009–12
  13. By: Willi Leibfritz
    Abstract: The paper discusses the current state of fiscal relations across levels of government in Belgium and how it has developed over time. As the current system of fiscal federalism is creating imbalances between the federal and the sub-federal governments (vertical imbalance), and between sub-federal governments (horizontal imbalance) the paper also suggests directions for improvements. Without reform, the vertical imbalance will widen as the fiscal burden from the ageing of the population falls mainly on the federal level. Reform should therefore strengthen the fiscal capacity of the federal government by improving its revenue sources and by shifting some spending obligations to sub-federal governments. The imbalance between regions arises because of the lack of coherence between taxation and spending. Shared revenues from the personal income tax are allocated to the region of residence, while the region of the workplace does not benefit, which particularly affects Brussels’ revenue level. This imbalance could be eliminated by allocating more of the shared personal income tax to the region of the workplace. Furthermore, the system of equalisation grants should be re-designed to provide incentives to the recipient regions to develop their own revenue base. The performance of the fiscal system could further be improved by raising the efficiency of spending in areas of national interest, which have been assigned to sub-federal governments or where there are overlapping responsibilities, such as in employment, R&D, training, education, energy and environmental policies.<P>Fédéralisme budgétaire en Belgique : Défis principaux et réformes envisageables<BR>Cet document de travail porte sur l’état actuel des relations budgétaires entre les différents niveaux d’administration en Belgique ainsi que sur la manière dont celles-ci ont évolué au fil du temps. Partant du constat que le système qui donne corps au fédéralisme budgétaire est source de déséquilibres entre l’administration fédérale et les échelons infra-fédéraux (déséquilibre vertical) de même qu’entre les différentes entités fédérées (déséquilibre horizontal), les auteurs esquissent des orientations pour l’améliorer. Faute de réformes, le déséquilibre vertical ne fera que s’accentuer dans la mesure où la charge budgétaire imposée par le vieillissement de la population grèvera principalement le budget fédéral. Aussi la réforme devra-telle viser à renforcer la capacité budgétaire de l’administration fédérale en améliorant ses sources de recettes et en faisant basculer la charge représentée par certaines dépenses obligatoires sur les entités fédérées. Le déséquilibre entre régions résulte du manque de cohérence entre fiscalité et dépenses. Les recettes partagées provenant de l’impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques sont attribuées à la région de résidence tandis que la région du lieu de travail n’en bénéficie pas, ce qui pénalise particulièrement la région de Bruxelles-Capitale en termes de recettes. Cette anomalie pourrait être corrigée en attribuant à la région du lieu de travail une proportion plus élevée des recettes partagées de l’impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques. Par ailleurs, il conviendrait de réorganiser le système des subventions de péréquation afin d’inciter les régions bénéficiaires à développer leurs propres sources de recettes fiscales. La performance du système budgétaire pourrait être encore améliorée si l’on réussissait à accroître l’efficience des dépenses dans les domaines d’intérêt national qui sont du ressort des entités fédérées ou dans lesquels on observe un chevauchement de compétences, qu’il s’agisse des politiques de l’emploi, de la R-D, de la formation, de l’éducation, de l’énergie et de l’environnement.
    Keywords: equalisation, fiscal co-ordination, fiscal federalism, tax assignment
    JEL: H7 H71 H72 H73 H75 H77
    Date: 2009–12–14
  14. By: Robert S. Chirinko; Daniel J. Wilson
    Abstract: The standard model of strategic tax competition – the non-cooperative tax-setting behavior of jurisdictions competing for a mobile capital tax base – assumes that government policymakers are perfectly benevolent, acting solely to maximize the utility of the representative resident in their jurisdiction. We depart from this assumption by allowing for the possibility that policymakers, given the political and electoral environments in which they operate, also may be influenced by the rent-seeking (lobbying) behavior of businesses. Firms recognize the factors affecting policymakers’ welfare and may make campaign contributions to influence tax policy. These changes to the standard strategic tax competition model imply that business contributions affect not only the levels of equilibrium tax rates but also the slope of the tax reaction function between jurisdictions. Thus, business campaign contributions may affect tax competition and enhance or retard the mobility of capital across jurisdictions. ; Based on a panel of 48 U.S. states and unique data on business campaign contributions, our empirical work uncovers four key results. First, we document a significant direct effect of business contributions on tax policy. Second, the economic value of a $1 business campaign contribution in terms of lower state corporate taxes is nearly $4. Third, the slope of the reaction function between tax policy in a given state and the tax policies of its competitive states is negative. Fourth, we highlight the sensitivity of the empirical results to state effects.
    Keywords: Taxation
    Date: 2009
  15. By: Jens Høj
    Abstract: Individual elements in Belgian tax system affect the growth process through different channels and to a varying degree. Consumption taxes are among the least distortive for growth, and there is considerable scope to increase the reliance on this tax source in Belgium. The Belgian differential taxation of saving vehicles distorts investment decisions, hampering the reallocation of capital towards its most productive use. However, the most distortive Belgian taxes are on labour through their effects on workers’ labour market decisions. Recognising the latter, the authorities have aimed at reducing taxation on labour. However, its level remains internationally high, reflecting numerous exemptions, which reduce tax bases and thus require higher tax rates than otherwise. To promote labour market prospects for individual groups on the labour market, wage subsidies and social security contribution reductions have been used extensively, leading to a complex system, often poorly targeted and at times subject to conflicting objectives. The end result is that the interaction between the personal income tax, the social security contributions, and the generous benefit systems has created a multitude of labour market traps which hold back employment. New tax reforms are constrained by the large and growing fiscal sustainability problem, implying that, unless substantial expenditure cuts are implemented, new tax reforms must be self-financed. This can be achieved by shifting the reliance of the tax system towards the least distortive sources and by broadening tax bases to allow lower tax rates. This Working Paper relates to the 2009 OECD Economic Survey of Belgium (<P>Comment réformer le système fiscal belge afin de renforcer l’expansion économique<BR>Les éléments constitutifs des systèmes fiscaux influent sur le processus de croissance par des canaux différents et à des degrés divers. Les impôts sur la consommation sont parmi ceux qui faussent le moins la croissance et il est tout à fait possible, en Belgique, d’exploiter davantage cette source de recettes fiscales. La taxation différenciée des instruments l’épargne fausse les décisions d’investissement, entravant le redéploiement des capitaux vers leur emploi le plus productif. Cependant, les impôts qui occasionnent le plus de distorsions sont ceux qui frappent le revenu du travail, en raison de leur impact sur les décisions des travailleurs en matière d'emploi. Conscientes de cela, les autorités belges ont cherché à alléger la fiscalité du travail. Cette dernière demeure cependant lourde en comparaison des autres pays, en raison de nombreuses exonérations, qui réduisent les bases d’imposition et nécessitent donc, pour compenser, des taux d’impôt plus élevés. Afin d’améliorer les perspectives des différents groupes sur le marché du travail, on a recouru largement à des subventions salariales et des réductions de cotisations de sécurité sociale, créant ainsi un système complexe, souvent mal ciblé et visant parfois des objectifs contradictoires. En fin de compte, l’interaction entre l’impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques, les cotisations de sécurité sociale et le généreux système de prestations a créé une multitude de pièges du marché du travail qui brident l’emploi. Les nouvelles réformes fiscales sont limitées par les problèmes importants et grandissants de viabilité des finances publiques, ce qui signifie que, à moins de procéder à de fortes compressions de dépenses, ces réformes devront s’autofinancer. Pour ce faire, il faut déplacer la charge fiscale vers les sources qui créent le moins de distorsions et élargir les bases d’imposition afin de pouvoir appliquer des taux plus bas. Ce document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Belgique, 2009 (
    Keywords: Belgium, consumption tax, contribution, fiscal sustainability, labour market decisions, social security, tax and growth, tax bases, tax rates, taxation of savings vehicles
    JEL: H20 H23 H24 H25 O16
    Date: 2009–12–18
  16. By: Leon Bettendorf (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Albert van der Horst (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Ruud A. de Mooij (Erasmus University Rotterdam, CPB, Tinbergen Institute, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation, CESifo); Hendrik Vrijburg (Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: This article assesses the economic implications of the introduction of consolidation with formula apportionment in the European Union under alternative enhanced cooperation agreements. We fi?nd that the consolidation is likely to yield a small aggregate welfare gain in Europe, but that not all countries benefi?t. A coalition of winning countries reduces the welfare gain and may induce a process of adverse selection which distroys the possibility of cooperation. We fi?nd that a coalition of similar countries (in terms of the size of their multinational sector) is more feasible in achieving agreement and is actually preferred by those countries over a European-wide reform.
    Keywords: Corporate tax harmonization, European Union, CCCTB, Applied General Equilibrium
    JEL: C68 F23 H25
    Date: 2010

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